The electrical current generated by your solar array will be direct current, or DC electricity. Most electrical appliances run on alternating current, or AC electricity. A power inverter converts the DC power of your solar array into AC power that your appliances can actually use. DC electricity travels in only one direction but AC electricity alternates back and forth. Without a power inverter, you will be forced to rewire your home and to purchase expensive DC powered appliances over lower cost mass-produced appliances made for the conventional home power source. In some cases, DC powered appliances will not be available and you will have to do without certain appliances. If you intend to be off-grid, you should consider propane to power things like stoves and refrigerators. Heat with a pellet or wood burning stove but make sure they are highly efficient modules that use less fuel.

Roof mounts are especially great since they're aesthetically pleasing and don't take up any space in your actual yard. There's a lot to consider with roof mounts, however. Most importantly, you'll need to think about the actual strength of your roof. If you live in an older house, you might have to get your roof redone before you can start bolting PV panels to it. Thirty panels weighs an awful lot, and it'd be a shame to have the whole thing come crashing down into your living room. Besides the strength of your roof, you'll need to make some decisions as to whether it's the most effective location.


Obviously, the biggest advantage of a DIY solar installation is cost savings. Consumer solar panel kits will end up costing you about $2.00 per watt. When compared to the average cost of solar panels installed by solar companies (around $3.20 per watt), this is a great deal. For the average home’s 5 kW residential power system, this can mean savings of $6,000 or more.

Silicon based modules: aluminum frames and junction boxes are dismantled manually at the beginning of the process. The module is then crushed in a mill and the different fractions are separated - glass, plastics and metals.[31] It is possible to recover more than 80% of the incoming weight.[32] This process can be performed by flat glass recyclers since morphology and composition of a PV module is similar to those flat glasses used in the building and automotive industry. The recovered glass for example is readily accepted by the glass foam and glass insulation industry.
I’m working on getting the power company (which is owned by our small city) to change this policy, however, since they recently announced a goal of moving to 100% renewable power by 2030. I’m one of the few people who will make the switch even if it costs me MORE than coal-generated electricity, so I don’t actually care about the payback period. But most people require a financial incentive to make a change.
Small wind energy systems can be connected to the electricity distribution system. A grid-connected wind turbine can reduce your consumption of utility-supplied electricity for lighting, appliances, and electric heat. If the turbine cannot deliver the amount of energy you need, the utility makes up the difference. When the wind system produces more electricity than the household requires, the excess is sent or sold to the utility. These arrangements with the utility company are typically called net metering or net billing, and they address the value of the electricity sold or net excess generation, the time period for valuing the electricity (typically annually or monthly), and any other contractual requirements with the utility.
Although wind energy systems involve a significant initial investment, they can be competitive with conventional energy sources when you account for a lifetime of reduced or avoided utility costs. The length of the payback period—the time before the savings resulting from your system equal the cost of the system—depends on the system you choose, the wind resource on your site, electricity costs in your area, and how you use your wind system.
After the calculating the battery capacity and solar panel rating you have to wiring them.In many cases the calculated solar panel size or battery is not readily available in the form of single unit in the market.So you have to add small solar panel or batteries to match your system requirement.To match the required voltage and current rating we have to use series and parallel connection.

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So while many of the people in the small wind community, social media, and sellers create mass hype hysteria and rely on mass inflated watt outputs to sell their wind generators Hurricane take a path less traveled in this industry.. We have taken the "master your craft" approach and we simply focus on building and selling the most robust products available on the web. We start with heavy steal and use good coatings and many items are even powder coated for high corrosion resistance. Whenever possible our components are sourced in the USA and we design and have stringent quality control testing prior to shipping a product. We back this up by our guarantee that your products will perform as advertised or we will make it right.
If you regularly find your lawn furniture blown over, or have to collect it from the neighbour’s yard, your house needs to be repainted every year or two because it constantly gets sand-blasted, and where the trees have funny shapes (and not because your power company has been doing the pruning), that is when you know you live in a windy place where a wind turbine is likely to make economic sense.
Wire the solar panel: At the back sides of the solar panel there is a small junction box with positive and negative sign for polarity. In a large size solar panel this junction box have terminal wires with MC4 connector but for small size panels you have to connect the junction box with external wires. Always try to use red and black wire for the positive and negative terminal connection. If there is provision for earth wire the use a green wire for wiring this.
This solar kit is ideal for running items like small pumps and lights, and can be used for charging up your battery pack. There are 4 x 100w polycrystalline solar panels that connect up to a two diode junction for better performance. The charge controller that comes with the kit is also one of the better units that we have reviewed. The charger includes a 3 stage control, multi colored status LED, temperature compensation and a manual or automatic charge equalization feature. This kit is more expensive than the 400W Renogy as it comes with an inverter.
Making polycrystalline panels is cheaper and it's a newer technology. The silicon cools unevenly and creates many different crystals giving it a less uniform appearance. Polycrystalline solar panels tend to be the most affordable, but they also put out a little less power. Even so, poly panels are gaining in efficiency and will usually have the lowest price per watt.
A typical home uses approximately 10,766 kilowatt-hours (kWh), an average of 897 kWh per month.[11] Depending on the average wind speed in the area, a wind turbine rated in the range of 5 to 15 kW would be required to make a significant contribution to this demand. A 1.5-kW wind turbine will meet the needs of a home requiring 300 kWh per month in a location with a 14 MPH (6.26 meters per second) annual average wind speed.[12] The manufacturer, dealer, or installer can provide you with the expected annual energy output of the turbine as a function of annual average wind speed. The manufacturer will also provide information about any maximum wind speeds at which the turbine is designed to operate safely. Most turbines have automatic overspeed-governing systems to keep the rotor from spinning out of control in extremely high winds.
✅ FEATURES: Integrated automatic braking system to protect from sudden and high wind speed. Easy DIY installation methods with all materials provided. Can be used in conjunction with solar panels. MPPT Maximum power point tracking built into the wind turbine generator. Made with high quality Polypropylene and Glass Fiber material with a weather resistant seal.
Next step is preparation, protection and painting of timber box (solar panel housing). Special hooks have to be attached to all four corners of the solar collector, so that it can be easily mounted on the wall (Fig. 16) using 10mm/0.4in screws (Fig. 17). Empty box is placed on the wall in order to precisely mark the spot for drilling the air inlet/exhaust.
On one side of the solar cell, there's an overabundance of electrons and on the other side there is a lack of electrons. Manufacturers create this static imbalance of charges on the cell by doping each side of the silicon solar cell with different chemicals (e.g. phosphorous on one side and boron on the other). Wires or soldered leads are effectively connected to each side of the cell. The positive and negative wires go to whatever you want to charge or power.
The higher you climb, the more you expose yourself to the elements. Everything that persuaded you to mount your wind turbine way up in the air is everything that poses a safety risk. The wind blows harder and more steadily up there than it does on the ground, so the chill factor intensifies. Even if your routine maintenance requires relatively delicate work with nuts, bolts, caps, and wires, protect your hands from cold…Or heat. In the winter, frostbite can set-in within just a few minutes of removing your gloves. Use gloves with clips if it’s cold so won’t drop them. No matter what season you climb the tower, make sure you stay hydrated because dehydration mimics intoxication. Also, make sure you stay nourished because a sugar lull will affect your concentration, balance, and coordination.

Another important part of a solar installation is meeting all of the necessary regulations. A professional installer can help you navigate the complicated details of ensuring that your equipment and install complies with all local, state, and national building and safety standards. You may need to get approval from a local electrical inspector, and your installer will also make sure you’re meeting all applicable electrical codes. You may need approvals from city planning departments. Your installer will also help you work with your insurance company to meet any special requirements they may have. Your power company will also have specific requirements, and working with a solar installer will help you get everything set up correctly. Although it’s not a regulation, you’ll also want to follow all of the requirements that your solar panel manufacturer has laid out in their warranty, so that if you ever need to replace a panel you know that you’ve met all of their guidelines for installation.


In fact, that list covers everything you actually need to make a fully functional solar panel using DIY solar panel kits. However, if you want your DIY solar panel to look like a real solar panel…the kind you’ll see from a professional installer, then you will need some additional materials, and some additional time and work constructing your solar panel.


Airport Wind Speed Data: Though not definitive, your nearby airport can provide good information about the average local wind speed for your area. You need to be a little cautious because the information recorded at the local airport may be on land that is flatter and less obstructed than your lot and is usually measured at heights of 20 - 30 feet off the ground.
TIP; Match the number of solar panels and wind turbine average daily output to the battery capacity: After you finish sizing the number of solar panels combined with the average daily output of your wind turbine to off-set your load requirements, you will need to consider whether the panels power and your battery bank's capacity are sized to work together, or are matched, within reason. You will want the hybrid system to have the capacity to ideally fully charge your battery bank on the shortest day of the year or be prepared to lower your power needs during the wintertime. If the hybrid system is too large, you waste money and power because your charge controllers will not send all the current the hybrid system produce because your battery bank will not be capable accepting too much power too quickly. If the hybrid system is too small, it will not be able to fully charge your battery bank.
Are you in the US? You can install solar panels and feed them into the grid if so. By law the power companies have to buy any electricity you produce. In some states it's much easier to implement than others though, check with local solar companies. You always use off the grid, but whatever you produce is fed into the grid during daytime. That offsets your electric bill. In most states the electric company just gives you a credit for whatever you produce, not a check in the mail.
The first component we are going to wire is the Charge Controller.At the bottom of the Charge Controller there are 3 signs in my charge controller. The first one from the left is for the connection of the Solar Panel having positive (+) and negative (-) sign. The second one with plus (+) and minus (-) sign is for the Battery connection and the last one for the direct DC load connection like DC lights.
As the section above shows, anything under 5 m/s annual average wind speed is not going to be worth-while if you want any economic benefit out of a wind turbine. Even with government incentives, you would be better off with solar for most places. Let us take this a bit further, and assume your backyard is pretty windy, a full 6 m/s (13.4 mph) annual average wind speed at 100′ height. You get a 6 kW wind turbine installed, and shell out $50,000 for that privilege. If the installer did her job properly, the turbine is spinning in nice, clean, laminar air, and it will produce around 13,000 kWh per year. You are the kind of person that wins the lottery on a regular basis, marries a beauty queen (or king), and has kids that all go to ivy-league universities; your wind turbine never breaks and you do not have to shell out a single buck for maintenance over 20 years. Now your turbine has produced around 260,000 kWh of electricity, which works out to 19.2 cents per kWh in cost. Maybe you pay more than for electricity and it is worth it, but your are likely not getting rich, and any repairs and maintenance will drive that price up in a hurry.

Wind turbines do work; put them in nice, smooth air and their energy production is quite predictable (we will get to predicting it a bit further on in this story). The honest manufacturers do not lie or exaggerate, their turbines really can work as advertised in smooth, laminar airflow. However, put that same turbine on a 40 feet tower and even if the annual average wind speed is still 5 m/s at that height, its energy production will fall far short of what you would predict for that value. How short is anybody’s guess, that is part of the point; it is impossible to predict the effect of turbulence other than that it robs the energy production potential of any wind turbine. Roof tops, or other locations on a house, make for poor turbine sites. They are usually very turbulent and on top of that their average wind speeds are usually very low.


Most people don't think in terms of particles, but light actually hits the PV (photovoltaic) cells as photons. As each photon hits the PV cell, it gives up an electron. While this is putting it somewhat simplistically, this is, indeed, the moment of conversion. The freed electron is absorbed by the silicon where it flows with other electrons into current; hence, electricity is born. Some scientists would say that the real tricky part is enhancing the cell with an electrical field to get all these electrons in line to flow as a current in the required direction: enter silicon.


Yes, this Nevada homeowner, working off our drawings and instructions, installed this 12 panel off-grid system himself. Every do-it-yourselfer knows the feeling of pride that comes with completing a project oneself and knowing that it's a job well done. Saving up to 50% over a professional installation by installing a solar kit while still receiving the federal tax credits and local incentives translates to thousands of dollars in savings down the road. It also means that it's going to take far less time for the kit to pay for itself through the electricity cost savings it will reap each year. This is a no-lose investment that effectively trumps anything happening on Wall Street. A pole mount solar system has to be among the most fun things you can plant with the added benefit of watching your savings grow. Don't take our word for it. Look at this customers face. You will be the envy of all your neighbors.
At the back side I made a big circular hole just behind the inverter fan for fresh air suction from the outside. Later I covered the hole with plastic wire mesh. A few small holes are also made for inserting the wires from the solar panel, charge controller and inverter to the battery and AC output to the appliances. At both sides 3 horizontal holes are provided for sufficient ventilation. A glass window is provided at the front side to view the different led indications on the inverter.
Now, it is time to consider site specific issues associated with installing the hybrid solar wind system. The most important factor in maximizing the performance of your wind generator is the correct siting on your property. The better the siting, the greater the performance. Small increases in average site specific wind speeds result in dramatic increases in energy output of your wind generator. For example, an increase in wind speed of 10% (10 mph - 11 mph; 4.5 m/s - 5 m/s) results in approximately a 30% increase in the power available from the wind. Therefore, the better the location the better the performance. As a rule, the small wind generator should be mounted as high and as faraway from obstructions as possible.
Controller – the charge controller is basically a safety feature that looks after the battery bank. It monitors the amount of energy stored in the batteries and protects the batteries from overheating when they are fully charged. When the batteries are fully charged the controller diverts the energy to the dump (see next component). We recommend MPPT charge controllers. They are a bit more expensive than PWM controllers, but they are much more efficient.
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People (like me) go with grid tie because net metering makes it economically a win (unless you end up in a bad lease, PPA or simply over-pay). I installed my 4 kW system myself for $8000, the IRS gave me back 30% of that and my $1200 annual power bills are now slightly negative :-) I've paid no power bill for two years now, and it's a pretty good feeling, and slightly weird to have the power company owe me money.
However, I am curious as to why you are fighting the fixed charge? You stated yourself that you are essentially using the grid as a battery. At night, you are still using the full infrastructure of the grid (wires / poles / power plants / etc.), which costs money to maintain. So it only seems to make sense that you have to pay for that, no? Yes, you are saving the utility some fuel costs during the middle of the day when your solar is exporting, but there are still a lot of other fixed costs that need to be covered. If you don’t pay your fair share of fixed costs, other customers will essentially be subsidizing you. In CA, where I live, this indirect subsidy from net metering could grow to over 2 billion dollars in the next decade. Ironically, it will be mainly richer people who own homes and buy solar that will be profiting from this.
Wiring systems are specified clearly. For instance, the red one is for all positive joints, black wire takes care of the battery negative and so on. Now, here’s a list of what you need to purchase separately- connector kit or electric wires, a pole or tower and batteries (available at Amazon as well as your nearest store). Considering its highs and lows, the master combination of this solar and wind at such a great price is highly recommended.
Infinitemall stands behind their products and is willing to bend over backwards to help the customer. I live in rural Alaska, power here is very expensive and is generated mainly by diesel generators. My family and I are constructing a grid-tied alternative energy home. Outback Inverters and charge controllers are at the heart of the system, with a total of 8KW in solar panels and 5kw in wind generators. I have also constructed a D/C generator using an old 4 wheeler motor and 2 MWS Freedom II Generals that produces an easy 3.5kw at low engine rpms. The system totals close to 20kw in all. I purchased this wind mill to replace an older wind mill that I had built a few years ago using Windy Nations PMG. When I received the wind generator, I was disappointed to find that the center hole for the shaft had not been machined. Infintemall was very helpful, they got a new turbine out to me right away, and even paid for the defective unit to be returned. All said and done, they are a great company to deal with and I would highly recommend their turbine. It is very quiet, and quite powerful.
Let’s also remember the carbon cost of fossil fuels is not just limited to the consumption of the fuel at the point of power generation. It takes a huge amount of energy to bring the oil or natural gas to the point of generation. From manufacturing of the steel well casing and pipeline, drill rig operation, fracturing operations, transport, and refinement. Not to mention the small army of oilfield workers driving around the field each day I F-150s to maintain the equipment, gauge tanks, etc. Then you have to consider the inefficiencies of transporting the energy from fossil fuel generation from centralized locations long distances to the point of consumption; whereas distributed power (i.e., rooftop solar) is consumed at the point of generation typically. I don’t have hard numbers, but I’d bet a lot that the one-time carbon cost of manufacturing the panels is less than the total carbon cost of bringing a similar amount of carbon-based fuel to market once you factor in all the above (exploration, development, transport, refinement, generation, and distribution).
"I came across Wholesale Solar's website and found out that we could purchase a system and install it ourselves. I researched their products and called several times with questions. Wil was readily available to answer every question, spent time looking at pictures that I sent of our property, and gave us several options that he felt would work well.
The term solar panels is often used for a few different types of products that produce energy by collecting sunlight. We most commonly use the phrase to refer to the type that converts sunlight directly into DC electricity. Less frequently, people will use the term in reference to solar thermal collectors, which typically heats a liquid such as water, or solar air heaters, which heats air directly.
Thin-film comes on a roll of flexible material. Though crystalline modules are more popular, thin-film is gaining a strong foothold in the market due to its ease of use. The two biggest advantages of thin-film are cost and convenience, since installation is as simple as slapping the module onto a smooth surface. One major drawback of thin-film, however, is durability - Thin-film usually only lasts around 25 years. Compared to crystalline, thin-film is usually more efficient in the dark, but less efficient in general.
Seeing the usual gushing over "solar" energy, a contrarian point of view is needed. "Solar" energy is, obviously, nothing but battery power. I'll stick to the grid any day rather than see a countryside littered with millions of dead batteries. Let the energy companies do what they do best. Of course, it's fun to mess with the technology but, as a practical matter of sunlight availability especially in certain parts of the country, you're going to go to the grid someday for some period of time...and it ain't gonna be cheap. The only really viable application is where there is no grid (unless we're talking about the poles!)
A lot of people don’t know this….Because we are tied into the grid and for safety, when the grid goes down so does our solar system. The micro-inverters are designed this way. The only way to have continuous power is to install a transfer switch connected to batteries and/or a generator. As long as the micro-inverters see continuous power, the solar system will continue to operate. Our power is fairly reliable so we have not seen the cost benefit of such an upgrade.
Combiner / circuit breaker box is a key piece of equipment that begins to bring the pieces of equipment together that allows you to generate electricity. We use almost exclusively Midnite Solar and OutBack combiners and breakers because they are safe, durable and easy to wire. NEC (National Electrical Code) says that each series of strings of panels are to be wired to it's own circuit breaker. Midnite Solar and OutBack combiner boxes make this task easy providing a breaker to turn off and on each string for any purpose. The combiner box is usually located directly under a ground mount array.
Beaufort scale—A scale of wind forces, described by name and range of velocity, and classified from force 0 to 12, with an extension to 17. The initial (1805) Francis Beaufort wind force scale of 13 classes (0 to 12) did not reference wind speed numbers but related qualitative wind conditions to effects on the sails of a frigate, then the main ship of the Royal Navy, from "just sufficient to give steerage" to "that which no canvas sails could withstand." Although the Beaufort scale has little use in site assessments, a system of tree flagging observations has been used to estimate prevailing wind directions and levels on the scale over time.
With a traditional wind turbine system, wind hits the rotary blades which turn a shaft connected to a gear box. The gear box increases the rotational speed enough to feed a generator, which converts the rotational energy into electrical energy. Modern systems get rid of the gearbox. Instead, the generating mechanism is housed in the blade tips and frame. The AIR wind turbine incorporates a three-phase brushless permanent magnet alternator and integrated microprocessor-based charge controller to optimize its power production capability. The microprocessor continuously adjusts the loading of the alternator to keep the turbine operating efficiently in most wind regimes.

This solar kit is ideal for running items like small pumps and lights, and can be used for charging up your battery pack. There are 4 x 100w polycrystalline solar panels that connect up to a two diode junction for better performance. The charge controller that comes with the kit is also one of the better units that we have reviewed. The charger includes a 3 stage control, multi colored status LED, temperature compensation and a manual or automatic charge equalization feature. This kit is more expensive than the 400W Renogy as it comes with an inverter.
Of course, this doesn’t take into account the fact that whoever built a power plant is now selling less kWh when the sun is shining, but that is the risk of that investment. The risk of installing rooftop solar is that the industry prevails over homeowner interests (some would say rights) and curtails your PV output instead of the power plant output.
Hybrid stand-alone power system technology has advanced with the pace of the number of homeowners who want to live off the grid making remote home energy systems that are no longer dependent on a single technology. In areas of the country with an average sustained winds of 6 M/S or 9 - 14 MPH, good exposure to prevailing winds like the top of hills or clearings at a 98 ft. height are generally considered to have a suitable wind resource for small wind applications.

Having a gas cooktop probably saves us electricity. However, we also use a large toaster oven to do most of the oven-style cooking. This uses much less electricity than the oven. We also bought a counter-depth (smaller volume = less energy) fridge that is Energy Star rated. And we also purchased an energy-efficient condo-sized washer and dryer set, and we only run them when we have full loads. My husband often hangs the clothes to dry.
As with any big ticket purchase, shopping for a solar panel installation takes a lot of research and consideration, including a thorough review of the companies in your area. A recent report by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recommended that consumers compare as many solar options as possible to avoid paying inflated prices offered by the large installers in the solar industry.
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