Wind shear—The difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Wind shear can be broken down into vertical and horizontal components, with horizontal wind shear seen across storm fronts and near the coast, and vertical shear seen typically near the surface (though also at higher levels in the atmosphere near upper-level jets and frontal zones aloft).
Step 5 is really confusing. Needs more detail. It looks like you took tabbing wire and soldered it in one long strip across the negative face of the bits. Then placed the whole string of bits on a large piece of copper mesh. So that only accounts for the positive to pos. and neg. to neg. Is there some other wire that goes over and under the bits? Could you please add pictures of attaching the where the positive and neg. parts are also?

After reading this article and investigating permits and all that BS, I can finally understand why so few people in this country have solar. My son and I installed my entire system, 3 kW, for $5,000, and after the 30% tax credit, my total cost was $3,500. That’s $1.17/kW. Inverters have come down since then and I could do the same job today for under $1/kW. For people with basic DIY skills including basic electrical wiring, it IS a simple process contrary to everything you read. In my area, there are no building codes, no zoning laws, no permits, (that’s what “freedom” looks like in case you’re wondering) so we did our own research and installed it how we wanted. We did a roof-top installation. Rail mounting systems are very expensive so we made our own using composite deck boards. They are some kind of recycled synthetic material and will last 200 years and are inexpensive. The solar panels come with a positive and a negative wire. You don’t have to try to figure out any wiring with those, they come prewired with male and female fittings so you can’t screw it up even if you try. After they are all hooked together, you end up with a positive and a negative wire. Those plug into your inverter in well-marked places so it is hard to screw this part up. If you do it at night, there is zero chance of getting electrocuted. From the inverter, you have two hots, a neutral, and a ground that plug into a 220-amp breaker in your electrical panel. Those places are also well marked in the inverter and hard to mess up. If you can install a water heater, you can install solar panels. It’s that simple. The biggest problem with solar is that everybody wants to make money off you along the way. The guy I bought my panels from wouldn’t even answer any questions because he was pissed I was doing my own installation. My electric co-op requires a professional electrician to pass everything off before they let you grid-tie. It was nearly impossible to find an electrician who would pass it off. Every one of them said the same thing, “If I didn’t install it, I’m not doing the inspection.” I finally got a guy out here. It took him 8 minutes to pass me off and sign the paper. I paid him $100. How long does it take to check a two AC wires (positive and negative) and three AC wires, plus two grounds? Give me a break. I would have given the guy $200 I was just so glad to finally get someone to look at it. I had everything open and ready when he got here. I walked him through it all explaining how each section was NEC compliant. He got his equipment out and did his testing and like I said, he was done in 8 minutes.
In addition to geologic formations, you need to consider existing obstacles such as trees, houses, and sheds, and you need to plan for future obstructions such as new buildings or trees that have not reached their full height.[31] Your turbine needs to be sited upwind of buildings and trees[32], and it needs to be 30 feet above anything within a 500-foot horizontal radius.[33] You also need enough room to raise and lower the tower for maintenance, and if your tower is guyed, you must allow room for the guy wires.
The energy in the wind goes up with the cube of the wind speed. Double the wind speed and you have 2 * 2 * 2 = 8 times the energy! Sit back and let the full weight of that sink in for a moment: It means that even a small difference in annual average wind speed will make a BIG difference in how much your wind turbine will produce: Putting that turbine in a place that has just 10% more wind will net you 1.1 * 1.1 * 1.1 = 1.33 = a full 33% more energy!
Seeing the usual gushing over "solar" energy, a contrarian point of view is needed. "Solar" energy is, obviously, nothing but battery power. I'll stick to the grid any day rather than see a countryside littered with millions of dead batteries. Let the energy companies do what they do best. Of course, it's fun to mess with the technology but, as a practical matter of sunlight availability especially in certain parts of the country, you're going to go to the grid someday for some period of time...and it ain't gonna be cheap. The only really viable application is where there is no grid (unless we're talking about the poles!)

This step is better with two people, especially on a steep roof. Starting at the furthest corner from the location of your inverter, connect each the panel’s wires to the matching ones on its host inverter. Set the panels down straight, and use the click-in clamps that come with the racking system to clamp down the panel using your cordless drill/driver.

Always, as in always, remember to take your first and most important safety precaution before you strap on your safety harness belt and take your first step up the tower: Shutdown the turbine and furl the blades before you ascend. If you leave the machine running, a sudden shift in the wind’s direction can spin the blades right into you, slicing and dicing you as if you were so much meat and cheese for a chef’s salad.
Daily energy budget? It is NOT based on a homes sq. ft. It is NOT based on how many people are living in the house. It is based on the equipment or appliances you want to run and how long each day you typically run them. It does not get more individual than that. The amount of energy you and your family consumes each day will vary among individuals habits and personal choices.

Your situation is different than homeowners and businesses in the USA. Generally speaking, it’s not legal for someone to install their own system in the United States, since usually the permits have to be filled out by a Master Electrician and they aren’t going to do that without at least inspecting your work. Plus most incentives will only be paid to a licensed installer, so a person wouldn’t really come out ahead anyway. Given that you are concerned primarily with theft you may want to give some thought to a tracking device, instead of just making the mounts more durable.


The top features of the SMA SunnyBoy TL-US Series. Secure power supply, dual mppt tracking, and opti trac global peak. Secure pOptiTrac™ Global Peak, SMA’s shadetolerant MPP tracking algorithm, quickly adjusts to changes in solar irradiation, which mitigates the effects of shade and results in higher total power output. And, with two MPP trackers, the TL-US series can ably handle complex roofs with multiple orientations.
Each time it’s accompanied by some type of announcement about how great solar is, and how they are building or have a solar farm, and they love solar. The next paragraph though, talks about how if you have solar panels, they are charging you more, or somehow increasing the costs. When I started getting quotes, payback was calculated at 6.3 years. Now, 4 years later, I’m looking at about 10.5 years . . . from today. Functionally, they have more than doubled my costs.
The top features of the SMA SunnyBoy TL-US Series. Secure power supply, dual mppt tracking, and opti trac global peak. Secure pOptiTrac™ Global Peak, SMA’s shadetolerant MPP tracking algorithm, quickly adjusts to changes in solar irradiation, which mitigates the effects of shade and results in higher total power output. And, with two MPP trackers, the TL-US series can ably handle complex roofs with multiple orientations.
If your wind turbine is connected to the local utility grid so that any of the power produced by your wind turbine is delivered to the grid, then your utility also has legitimate concerns about safety and power quality that need to be addressed. The utility's principal concern is that your wind turbine automatically stops delivering any electricity to its power lines during a power outage. Otherwise line workers and the public, thinking that the line is "dead," might not take normal precautions and might be hurt or even killed by the power from your turbine. Another concern among utilities is whether the power from your facility synchronizes properly with the utility grid and it matches the utility's power in terms of voltage, frequency, and power quality.
Although the calculation of wind power illustrates important features about wind turbines, the best measure of wind turbine performance is annual energy output. The difference between power and energy is that power (kilowatts [kW]) is the rate at which electricity is consumed while energy (kilowatt-hours [kWh]) is the quantity consumed. An estimate of the annual energy output from your wind turbine, kWh/year, is the best way to determine whether a particular wind turbine and tower will produce enough electricity to meet your needs. Contact a wind turbine manufacturer, a dealer/installer, or a site assessor to help you estimate the energy production you can expect. They will use a calculation based on the particular wind turbine power curve, the average annual wind speed at your site, the height of the tower that you plan to use, micro-siting characteristics of your site and, if available, the frequency distribution of the wind (an estimate of the number of hours that the wind will blow at each speed during an average year). They should also adjust this calculation for the elevation of your site.
Electric cost adjustment—An energy charge (dollars per kilowatt-hour) on a utility bill in addition to the standard rate in the tariff, which is associated with extra costs to purchase fuel, control emissions, construct transmission upgrades, and so on. These various costs may be itemized or rolled into one electric cost adjustment rate. Sometimes referred to as fuel cost adjustment.
Working with all my formulae and variables for wind turbines’ kW, I inadvertently, fortunately, have begun to sort my “need-to-know” list from my “wish-I-knew” list.  For example, I understand that “kilowatt” is the standard unit of measure for generating and consuming electricity; I do not really need to understand the relationship between watts and volts—at least, not yet anyway.  I must remember, though, that most of my appliances run on twelve-volt alternating current, and I cannot connect my (still imaginary) wind turbine directly to my household power without running it, first, through an inverter or transformer, converting it from direct current to alternating current.  Working-out my (still in the catalogue) wind turbine’s “kW,” I have mastered the difference between “power” and “energy”:  Oh sure, you think the two words represent the same atomic stuff surging through the wires, but “power” tells me what my (I should buy it) wind turbine can crank out in any old split-second.  “Energy,” on the other hand, tells me what my (durable, reliable, but still imaginary) wind turbine will produce over time—that kilowatt-hour deal that means so much.  Yes, I should know my wind turbine’s kW power, but I absolutely must know my wind turbine’s kW energy…first in kilowatt hours, for the sake of comparison, and then in kilowatts per month for the sake of calculating supply and demand.
When it is sunny, regardless of outdoor temperature, pop cans (painted black) heat up very quickly. The fan drives cold air from inside of the home, through heated pop-cans and then back into the room. During this journey air collects the heat from can wall and brings it into the room. Read the following post if you are looking for more details about how solar thermal system actually works.
The article says it “may” cost you more. Meanwhile ive seen articles describing how installer have shortened previous install times from days to hours. Costs continue to decrease, probably from healthy competition. Your best DIY time is spent understanding the available technology, financing options, incentives, tax breaks, and where vendors will willingly compete for your business. The combined incentives are substantial, in some cases 60% of total cost, not including the reduced power bills. My advice is to Learn the costs and technology and ask for itemized quotes that include; panels, mounts, inverter(s), cables, meter, misc hardware, and most of all, labor. Incentives and discounts should also be separately itemized. Major components should include suppliers and model/part numbers. Car repair vendors are required to do this by law. I can think of no reason why this should be any different. If they wont quote component prices at least insist on supplier/part numbers so you can cost them yourself. If they wont commit to part numbers then cross them off your list. There are plenty of vendors out there. Base all figures assuming you will buy and own the system. You can quote financing, leasing, and service options separately. Get several contractor quotes and compare. You can readily price the same parts from online suppliers, then calculate the markup for each quote. As some have already noted here, the markup can be very high. Is the vendor making $10+K profit for a one or two day install? Published data shows that half the nations installers quote flat rates of $4.90 per KW – thats $25,000 for a 5KW system! And most people are unaware of the markup. Solar vendors have honed the “Green Power” pitch to the calculator challenged. The tax breaks and incentives make this worse. Legislators please take note. Incentive rules have produced a Cartel, where most incentive $$$ go to contractors at the expense of the consumers. Please join me, to the degree that you are able, to be an informed consumer. I am particularly offended by sales people who ask for my birthday (credit check) in the first minute. I am in the market for a solar power products and might later be interested in their financing, but only if it suits me. Birthdays are a major source of identity theft. Say no until its the proper time to discuss financing and then insist they put in writing their legal obligation to prevent disclosure. Solar power is becoming mainstream and economical. some helpful info. 1) For comparison, panels are specified by max power, aka “Standard Test”. Typically 200 to 300+ watts per panel. 2) add up past 12 power bills to get an daily average KW-HR usage. 3) Size your system to provide daily average in a few hrs. Example: 5KW system provides 20KW-HR in 4 hrs. 4) panels generate about 12 to 14 w/ft-sq. 5KW needs ~ 400 ft-sq. Or (20) 250 watt panels. 5) you need south facing surfaces. See panel sizes for how to arrange and fit on your roof or possibly ground area. 6) panels are available at http://www.wholesalesolar.com, prices are $0.90 – $1.20/watt. Look for durability and warranty. 7) Grid tie inverters will run $2000 to $3000 for 5 to 10KW system. Look for efficiency, monitoring, and warranty. 8) Fed provides 30% tax credit. Find your state incentives for tax relief, low interest loans, permit rebates, etc 9) Power companies need renewable sources (you!) and they are reluctant to inform you about it 10) “Grid Tie” systems are most typical. “Backup” and “Off Grid” systems require more (serious DIY!) research. 11) Some places have complicated permitting. See “CPF DOE Permitting study” at https://solarpermit.org Good Luck!
One- to 10-kW turbines can be used in applications such as pumping water. Wind energy has been used for centuries to pump water and grind grain. Although mechanical windmills still provide a sensible, low-cost option for pumping water in low-wind areas, farmers and ranchers are finding that wind-electric pumping is more versatile and they can pump twice the volume for the same initial investment. In addition, mechanical windmills must be placed directly above the well, which may not take advantage of available wind resources. Wind-electric pumping systems can be placed where the wind resource is the best and connected to the pump motor with an electric cable. However, in areas with a low wind resource, mechanical windmills can provide more efficient water pumping.
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