Square wave inverter is cheaper among the all but not suitable for all appliances.Modified Sine Wave output is also not suitable for certain appliances, particularly those with capacitive and electromagnetic devices such as: a fridge, microwave oven and most kinds of motors.Typically modified sine wave inverters work at lower efficiency than pure sine wave inverters.
Because wind speeds increase with height, the turbine is mounted on a tower. In general, the higher the tower, the more power the wind system can produce. The tower also raises the turbine above the air turbulence that can exist close to the ground because of obstructions such as hills, buildings, and trees. A general rule of thumb is to install a wind turbine on a tower with the bottom of the rotor blades at least 30 feet (9 meters) above any obstacle that is within 300 feet (90 meters) of the tower.[14] Relatively small investments in increased tower height can yield very high rates of return in power production.
Battery bank sizing is the capacity to store electrons and is expressed in amp hours (AH) and at the rate the battery will charge or discharge not the physical size of the battery. Be careful when you are considering the Ah capacity of a battery and compare batteries that are advertising a 20 Ah discharge and not more (An apples to apple thing). Choose the 20-hour rate when sizing and selecting batteries.
DIY solar is for someone capable of reading with understanding. For any DIY that does not want to take the time to study about what he is planning to do, then DIY solar is a big fire risk for the homeowner DIY. Solar is not too difficult, but it is not easy as pie either. Wire sizes, connections, and fusing have to be undersood, and contrary to most DIY experiences with electricity, DC is a very unforgiving beast; way different from AC.
I don’t think people have fully realized the consequences of prices this low. Price per kWh installed could (with appropriate automation) reach under 1 cent per kWh over 25 years (the cells themselves accounting for just a quarter of this), meaning you can install enough solar panels to still provide electricity on cloudy days and with battery backing during nighttime while still being cheaper than fossil fuels.
turbine installed and running - sustained a storm last night with steady winds before the storm of up to 25 mph, then the storm hit and gusts in excess of 40 mph - the wind turbine sustained no damage and is still running this morning. My sister's house lost power for 5 hours, however, the turbine is set up to run the ice box, the ice box never lost power, everything is still... [green backup power]
System Considerations -- Be sure to leave enough room to raise and lower the tower for maintenance. If your tower is guyed, you must allow room for the guy wires. Whether the system is stand-alone or grid-connected, you also will need to take the length of the wire run between the turbine and the load (house, batteries, water pumps, etc.) into consideration. A substantial amount of electricity can be lost as a result of the wire resistance—the longer the wire run, the more electricity is lost. Using more or larger wire will also increase your installation cost. Your wire run losses are greater when you have direct current (DC) instead of alternating current (AC). If you have a long wire run, it is advisable to invert DC to AC.
DIY solar is for someone capable of reading with understanding. For any DIY that does not want to take the time to study about what he is planning to do, then DIY solar is a big fire risk for the homeowner DIY. Solar is not too difficult, but it is not easy as pie either. Wire sizes, connections, and fusing have to be undersood, and contrary to most DIY experiences with electricity, DC is a very unforgiving beast; way different from AC.
"Jeremy was easy to work with and instilled confidence from the beginning. I never felt pressured to purchase, and every question was answered. I felt confident and I knew that if I had a question or an issue he would help. On the installation, I was a bit nervous at first but once I understood the layout and installation it went together quite fast, and it was relatively easy."
DIY solar is for someone capable of reading with understanding. For any DIY that does not want to take the time to study about what he is planning to do, then DIY solar is a big fire risk for the homeowner DIY. Solar is not too difficult, but it is not easy as pie either. Wire sizes, connections, and fusing have to be undersood, and contrary to most DIY experiences with electricity, DC is a very unforgiving beast; way different from AC.
On-site data measurement adds a new layer of confidence to the techniques discussed above, but with substantial additional costs, effort, and time, especially when the preferred methodology is to match turbine hub height and collect data for a minimum of 1 year. Obtaining several years of data is better, or 1 year that can be referenced to a longer-term data set if there is good correlation with the on-site data. A number of small, affordable wind data collection systems are available for on-site measurement and are best run for at least 1 year. These systems include anemometers, wind vanes, and temperature sensors that are mounted as close to hub height as possible. Calculating the wind shear exponent requires collecting data at two different heights. Having wind shear data is essential for conducting an accurate analysis of the cost versus benefits of taller towers. In addition, analysis must be performed to determine wind speed averages and extremes, wind distribution, Weibull parameters, the wind direction rose, turbulence intensity, vertical wind shear exponent, and associated uncertainties.[28]
A Homeowner’s Guide to Solar Financing: Leases, Loans and PPAs – This guide from the Clean Energy States Alliance helps homeowners navigate the complex landscape of residential solar system financing. It describes three popular residential solar financing choices and explains the advantages and disadvantages of each, as well as how they compare to a direct cash purchase.
The British Energy Savings Trust report titled “Location, location, location”: This requires some reading-between-the-lines as the Trust is rather closely aligned with the small wind industry. They looked at 57 turbines for a year, a number of them building mounted, others tower mounted, and concluded that building mounted turbines did very poorly.
Eventually, we should realize that net-metering is an incentive (needed at first to jump-start the rooftop solar industry), and that retail-wholesale rates are fairer to the utility and community all around. Net metering is when you over-produce in the summer, and get those kWhs back in the winter for free–you haven’t paid the utility for the transport and “storage” of the energy. Retail-wholesale is when the utility pays you the same rate they pay other power plants for each kWh (usually 1/2 to 1/3 the rate on your bill), and whenever you consume from the grid (evenings, cloudy days, winter), you pay the normal cost. That way, you pay the utility the infrastructure cost for moving that energy around. We have that here now, and I think it’s the way forward. But now, what they want to do is curtail the homeowner solar: using smart meters (and smart inverters), they would automatically shut down your production (turn off your inverter) when they have too much electricity (from their own solar farms). You would have to agree to this in order to be grid-tied, and remember, when they shut down your inverter, you can’t even use your solar power yourself. I think this is purely for profit motives and has nothing to do with the purported technical reasons.

Depending on the size and type of residential solar system to decide to purchase, the location of installation can vary. In most cases, homeowners choose to install solar panels on the roof of their home. It’s a great space saver, if you don’t have a lot of land, and can receive great contact with the sun’s rays. But, what if you the majority of your roof is under shade from large trees? Maybe it’s better to mount your solar panels in the yard instead. This is also a good option when you need a larger amount of solar panels, that your roof might not be able to accommodate.

As you climb, work with a “spotter” who can alert you to dangerous conditions or potential problems. Depending on your tower’s design and construction, you may have to check handholds and footsteps as you climb, repairing or correcting defects with nearly every step. As you climb, focus on your next move; do not look all the way to the tower’s top, and steadfastly resist the urge to look down. Your brain and body can imagine you are on solid ground if you control where you direct your sight. When you reach the tower’s top, stay focused on the maintenance tasks you must perform. Unless you know your capacities and limits, and unless you have lots of climbing experience, you should resist the nearly overwhelming urge to take-in the view from up there. And, as you descend, resist the temptation to slide or rappel down the tower; for most climbers, coming down is tougher than going up.


Note: This wind turbine kit works best indoors using a fan to simulate the power of wind. Use a standing or box fan with multiple power settings. The pictured wind turbine was built from the components in this kit.  Purchase extra Styrofoam trays to experiment with even more blade patterns. The Wind Turbine Science Kit includes easy-to-follow instructions and supplies for seven experiments.
Look at that product name again. How much time will you have to spend just to understand what all those terms mean? Because you need to know what you’re buying before you buy it, right? How do you know if you want or need all those things? Is 300 Watts a lot? How much power will that give me? How much will it save me on my bills? What’s polycrystalline? Is that good?
Since the energy output to the loads must be balanced by the energy input from your solar panels and wind turbine, we need to calculate your daily charge requirement in amp hours as that number will come in handy later. Take your total daily watt hours x 20% (rule of thumb) to account for losses in inverter, circuits and wire transfer. Now divide by the system voltage you chose based on the previous section and write this number down. This is the charge in amp hours your solar panels will have to provide each day to meet your load requirements you have set. Example 5,000 watts daily load total X 20% = 6,000 watts / 48 volt system = 125 amp hours that will need to be generated. Example #2, 5,000 watts daily load total X 20% = 6,000 watts / 24 volt system = 250 amp hours that will need to be generated.
In addition to geologic formations, you need to consider existing obstacles such as trees, houses, and sheds, and you need to plan for future obstructions such as new buildings or trees that have not reached their full height.[31] Your turbine needs to be sited upwind of buildings and trees[32], and it needs to be 30 feet above anything within a 500-foot horizontal radius.[33] You also need enough room to raise and lower the tower for maintenance, and if your tower is guyed, you must allow room for the guy wires.
A few years ago, some state governments started developing new standardized interconnection requirements for small renewable energy generating facilities (including wind turbines). In most cases, the new requirements are based on consensus-based standards and testing procedures developed by independent third-party authorities, such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and Underwriters Laboratories. Utility companies will typically require compliance with IEEE 1547, which addresses electrical safety requirements for wind turbine systems. Some utilities may require appropriate electrical listing before allowing interconnection of the wind system.
Betz limit—The maximum power coefficient (Cp) of a theoretically perfect wind turbine equal to 16/27 (59.3%) as proven by German physicist Albert Betz in 1919. This is the maximum amount of power that can be captured from the wind. In reality, this limit is never achived because of drag, electrical losses, and mechanical inefficiencies. See also Cp.*
We decided to go with a grid-tied system, which is much more cost effective than an off-grid system. One advantage is that you don’t have to buy batteries, which are expensive and have to be replaced from time to time. You can also choose to install a smaller, less expensive system that generates just a portion of your electricity. On the downside, grid-tied systems provide no electricity when the power grid is down.

Crystalline solar panels (both monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels are more efficient than thin-film solar panels. But, they’re also more costly because they are more pure. Monocrystalline solar panels have been found to capture about 18-21% of the sun’s rays, where thin-film solar panels average around 15%. All panels have an average life span of 25+ years; crystalline silicon solar panels have lifespans up to 40 years. Intuitively, the more efficient the panels, the less you’ll need to buy.
Where can I compare solar panel prices online? How much do solar panels cost in Denver Colorado and what is the payback period? How much do solar panels cost for homes in Orlando and Miami, Florida in 2018? Wiring solar panels: Do you wire solar panels in series or parallel? What is the cost of solar panels in Las Vegas, 2018? A new website suggests Americans may be overpaying for electricity by a whopping 27.6 billion per year
Deciding the size of your system is the next step. With a grid-tied system, size is less critical, because the grid supplies power when your PV system falls short. Systems as small as a couple hundred watts are practical, but you can also install panels that will produce enough electricity for all your needs. Review how much electricity you use now, and then estimate what you will be able to save by applying conservation and efficiency measures throughout your home. This will give you an idea of how big a system you’ll want to build. You certainly can build a system smaller than this, but it may not pay to install a larger one. Look up your state on DSIRE to learn about net metering rules where you live, including how much you can get paid for generating excess power.
In the spirit of self-reliance and ecological responsibility, wind farms and wind generators have become an increasingly logical option for energy. The wind generator kits available are a huge step in that direction. Wind generators create and provide energy by harnessing an inexhaustible, renewable resource: the wind. There is a large inventory of wind generator kits available on eBay. The basic components of a wind generator kit include the wind turbine, the blades and hub, and the tail. There are many additional choices to consider with your wind generator such as tower height and length, amount and size of blades, and power translating efficiency. Wind/solar hybrid designs, tail extensions, and other customizable options and add-ons are also available, depending on your wants and needs. You can even add decorative details with a colored or American flag emblazoned tail. Alternative energy is becoming a more popular choice for people willing to invest in both the wind generator as well as the path to non-polluting energy it is forging.
Even in my neighborhood in a small town, where once nice homes are now rentals, I have noticed by flying kites that there are very specific 'wind tunnels' in my back yard, on the side of my house (between properties) and around the corners of my house. I think putting vertical spiraled panels at each corner of my house from ground to roof, along with a horizontal turbine in the middle of my backyard between the trees where there is a permanent opening would provide alot of wind power. I also think each each person needs to start testing the winds that belong to their house every month of the year with kites: big ones, little ones, heavy and light ones. If you have kids, dogs, or especially Kitty cats, you will have a blast doing your "wind study". I sure did. I had a yard full of cats grabbing kite tails and running off with them! I found optimal wind lift at 15 feet in some areas. It has alot to do with the building that has taken place around you, and the very specific currents produced from that design. It's likje your very own wind footprint.

A new commercial or industrial wind turbine ought to require little or no maintenance. Manufacturers construct twenty-first-century wind turbine blades from composite materials so that they will not corrode or require replacement; new blades ought to withstand even torturous conditions with little or no routine care. Similarly, reliable wind turbine builders fashion the latest generation of nacelles from rust proof or rust resistant alloys and powder coat the units for maximum durability; the units seal tightly, protecting the working parts inside. And, as with most major machinery, an ordinary wind turbine user will find no user-serviceable parts inside the nacelle. If the unit fails, it will require professional service. Even with all these features designed and guaranteed to keep your wind turbine running smoothly and reliably, the system still requires routine maintenance.


Without a deep cycle battery system, you will be unable to store the electricity that your solar power unit generates. This means basically that you will only have power when the sun is shining. Deep cycle batteries are specially configured to be charged and discharged frequently with a high demand system like a solar power system. The battery monitor provides a visual gauge of the electricity generated and stored by your solar power system, while the solar charge controller manages the process of charging your deep cycle batteries making sure they receive just the right amount of power but controlled and regulated throughout the day.
Paying to have solar panels cleaned is often not a good investment; researchers found panels that had not been cleaned, or rained on, for 145 days during a summer drought in California, lost only 7.4% of their efficiency. Overall, for a typical residential solar system of 5 kW, washing panels halfway through the summer would translate into a mere $20 gain in electricity production until the summer drought ends—in about 2 ½ months. For larger commercial rooftop systems, the financial losses are bigger but still rarely enough to warrant the cost of washing the panels. On average, panels lost a little less than 0.05% of their overall efficiency per day.[28]
First, link the cells in series. Respect this basic rule, just like if you were soldering batteries: the positive lead is to be soldered to the negative lead of the next cell. Do this for as many cells as needed to reach a voltage of 12 or 24 volts. Do not exceed that as you would enter the area of dangerous voltages. You want to generate serious power here, not fool around and you don’t want to electrocute yourself to death (take care!). The power remains the same, after all. You just need a minimum of 12 volts to kick-start a 12V inverter for generating 110/220V AC or charge your 12V battery packs. Linking the cell in series will increase the voltage.
Great post, thank you. I have been on the fence on this one for the same reasons. I will get it done this year, though the ridiculous tariffs really chap my hide. I haven’t found a good green clothes drying strategy for Western Washington, so this will help cover electric dryer costs. Your post did not discuss the ‘harm’ identified by some utilities in having ‘too much’ daytime production. My assumption is that the grid tying incentives will phase out as more homes adopt solar and that a shift to a battery system may be required. At any rate, this is good stuff!
Fact is that in sunny places, solar has already eliminated their daytime peak (mostly from air-conditioning), and now they are complaining about the new peak that happens in the evening, when the sun has gone down and people get home from work and turn on lights and appliances. It’s important to remember that this peak is lower than the one that solar already eliminated–so they know how to handle it. And now storage technologies will help with the evening peak by diverting the excess daytime production. Pumped hydro and industrial-scale batteries are the most mature, just imagine all those old car batteries racked up next to a solar farm.
While we cannot defy the laws of physics as the current advertised power output values of many companies selling these type of products do. Hurricane products have a proven track record of producing more power over time than any of the other leading brands we have tested. Our buck boost mppt controllers and larger blade swept area and generator rotor and stators coupled with our buck boost MPPT controllers just make more power over time period.
Connecting the leads in itself to an electrical load, while closing the current path, does not allow to the electrons to flow, despite the positive and negative imbalance. It takes sunlight hitting the silicon in the solar cells to loosen up electrons. And as soon as they a freed up, they immediately start flowing through the wires to power your electrical loads. The more sunlight shines on the cells, the more electrons loosen up, the more electrical current flows and the more power it produces.
The peak power rating, Wp, is the maximum output under standard test conditions (not the maximum possible output). Typical modules, which could measure approximately 1 m × 2 m or 3 ft 3 in × 6 ft 7 in, will be rated from as low as 75 W to as high as 350 W, depending on their efficiency. At the time of testing, the test modules are binned according to their test results, and a typical manufacturer might rate their modules in 5 W increments, and either rate them at +/- 3%, +/-5%, +3/-0% or +5/-0%.[18][19][20]
For the times when neither the wind turbine nor the PV modules are producing, most hybrid systems provide power through batteries and/or an engine-generator powered by conventional fuels such as diesel. If the batteries run low, the engine-generator can provide power and recharge the batteries. Adding an engine-generator makes the system more complex, but modern electronic controllers can operate these systems automatically. An engine-generator can also reduce the size of the other components needed for the system. Keep in mind that the storage capacity must be large enough to supply electrical needs during non-charging periods. Battery banks are typically sized to supply the electric load for 1 to 3 days.[40]
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