At the back side I made a big circular hole just behind the inverter fan for fresh air suction from out side .Later I covered the hole by using plastic wire mesh.Few small holes are also made for inserting the wires from solar panel,charge controller and inverter to the battery and ac out put to the appliances.At the both sides panel 3 horizontal holes are provided for sufficient ventilation. A glass window is provided at the front side to view the different led indications in the inverter.
Windmill suggest a battery capacity of 200A for this model and a 24V system. A nice feature with this package is the inclusion of an MPPT charge controller. The controller is an integral part of a solar or wind installation, and MPPT systems are the most efficient type available. Efficiency is king in the renewable energy world, and these controllers typically run at 94-98% efficiency. Besides ensuring the system runs optimally, the controller ensures that the batteries are charged properly.
Right now, the best way to install solar is through a qualified professional who holds a certification to do so and works with high-quality solar panels. The industry-standard certification is awarded through the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners (NABCEP). In the future, though, you will likely be able to install solar yourself. SETO awardee Fraunhofer CSE is developing a plug-and-play solar array that enables consumers to easily attach the panels to their roofs using an adhesive roof mounting system and connect it to the grid in under 12 hours. This is still in development – until it is available at your local home improvement store, you should work with a certified solar installer.
Solar panels are built to work in all climates, but in some cases, rooftops may not be suitable for solar systems due to age or tree cover. If there are trees near your home that create excessive shade on your roof, rooftop panels may not be the most ideal option. The size, shape, and slope of your roof are also important factors to consider. Typically, solar panels perform best on south-facing roofs with a slope between 15 and 40 degrees, though other roofs may be suitable too. You should also consider the age of your roof and how long until it will need replacement.
The British Energy Savings Trust report titled “Location, location, location”: This requires some reading-between-the-lines as the Trust is rather closely aligned with the small wind industry. They looked at 57 turbines for a year, a number of them building mounted, others tower mounted, and concluded that building mounted turbines did very poorly.
At the back side I made a big circular hole just behind the inverter fan for fresh air suction from the outside. Later I covered the hole with plastic wire mesh. A few small holes are also made for inserting the wires from the solar panel, charge controller and inverter to the battery and AC output to the appliances. At both sides 3 horizontal holes are provided for sufficient ventilation. A glass window is provided at the front side to view the different led indications on the inverter.
I disagree, I have saw evidence the power companies always find a way to steal back whatever money you would of saved. There is a return on your own system if you do it right. There are solar panels that have 25 to 30 year warranty, and they should still produce power even after that. If you use Edison type batteries they will last decades, and when they go bad you can just refresh them. Once you have them paid for you no longer are paying for power anymore, and when everyone's power goes out, yours will still work.
Crystalline solar panels (both monocrystalline and polycrystalline solar panels are more efficient than thin-film solar panels. But, they’re also more costly because they are more pure. Monocrystalline solar panels have been found to capture about 18-21% of the sun’s rays, where thin-film solar panels average around 15%. All panels have an average life span of 25+ years; crystalline silicon solar panels have lifespans up to 40 years. Intuitively, the more efficient the panels, the less you’ll need to buy.
It is important to note that we are dealing with the DC current. So the positive (+) is to be connected to positive (+) and negative (-) with negative (-) from Solar Panel to Charge Controller. If it gets mixed up, the equipment can go burst and may catch fire. So you need to be extremely careful when connecting these wires. It is recommended to use 2 color wires i.e. red and black color for positive (+) and negative (-).If you don't have red and black wire you may wrap red and black tap at the terminals.
"Wholesale Solar and John Grenvik where a pleasure to do business with. I found it interesting and quite unusual that John would not let me up-size my battery bank beyond what my panels would support on my off grid system, as he said I would be destroying the batteries by their not getting a full charge. How's that for looking out for the customer even at the expense of additional sales."
The next factor to consider is how you are going to be harnessing the solar power that your kit generates, as there are 2 options. The first is with a grid-tied system that takes your excess electricity that has been generated and feeds it back into the electrical grid. If you live in a state with net metering, you will receive credit for this power to reduce your utility bill. This option is a better fit for the full-size home systems that have grid access.

That being said in and generator you have windings. These are the wires that you see in the casing that are wrapped in close proximity. These wires have and enameled coating which has a temperature rating at which if it is heated beyond the coating burns off and the generator or even an electrical motor will burn up. Therefore it is important to understand that in any generator if too much torque is applied for the size windings or wire gauge then the amperage flow builds up heat and any generator can burn up if too much input torque is applied for a given generator. This is why matching a wind turbine to a generator set is important.
(A) The size and or number of solar panels is calculated from the total energy requirements + allowing for wire and inverter transmission loss (20% rule of thumb) less the lowest solar irradiance available in the area of the system which is usually the shortest daylight month of the year (December). In a hybrid system, you are not only considering the solar array but also the average available wind for your area. The combined input of both systems must equal your daily output during the shortest day of the year or you will certainly strain your battery bank capacity.
The nonprofit Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), based in Boston, is piloting a turnkey system, which they hope to make available commercially in 2017. Their goal is to dramatically reduce soft costs such as permitting, installation and interconnection, which make up more than half the total cost of residential rooftop solar energy systems. By simplifying the process, they intend to bring down the cost of PV installation to $1.50/watt by 2020 from the current average of $4/watt. 
How frustrating! Even in solar-backwards Virginia, HOAs are actually not permitted to STOP us from putting solar panels on our roofs. Maybe worth checking around and seeing if your state has something similar that will help over-rule this objection from your HOA? Might be something out there that the HOA doesn’t even know about – they often just reflexively say “no” without necessarily checking on what the most recent statutes say.
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Perform a local wind survey. This is an essential step, and will show whether a turbine is a feasible prospect or not. You can do this yourself using a wind meter. You would need to measure the wind at the prospective installation site on a daily basis for a long period of time (+1 year) to get worthwhile data. The other option is to use public information collected by meteorological agencies.

Micro-inverted solar panels are wired in parallel, which produces more output than normal panels which are wired in series with the output of the series determined by the lowest performing panel (this is known as the "Christmas light effect"). Micro-inverters work independently so each panel contributes its maximum possible output given the available sunlight.[15]
Thin-film comes on a roll of flexible material. Though crystalline modules are more popular, thin-film is gaining a strong foothold in the market due to its ease of use. The two biggest advantages of thin-film are cost and convenience, since installation is as simple as slapping the module onto a smooth surface. One major drawback of thin-film, however, is durability - Thin-film usually only lasts around 25 years. Compared to crystalline, thin-film is usually more efficient in the dark, but less efficient in general.

Local, state, and federal rebates for solar panels often require that a licensed installer do the work in order to qualify. Missing out on rebates and tax incentives can mean losing a significant amount of money. Not only will your installer make you eligible for this cash, they’ll also know which incentives will work for you, and can help you apply.
To your utter dismay, these panels’ own a massive shortcoming. They don’t work after day-time. Big mess up! Actually not, save charges with batteries and gracefully, the controller has auto-detect feature that can select itself from 12v or 24v battery. In case, you join only 1 solar panel, 12v battery should be the thing, and the 24v one is applicable for 2 panels.
I can also double or triple the number of panels on this particular system (once I decide on a good place to put them) without changing the inverter or any of the grid-tie connections, which will greatly improve my annual return on investment. It’s just a LEGO-like plug and play to connect more panels to an existing rack of them, plus the inverter has a second set of inputs if you are running in some wires from a string of panels you have placed somewhere else.
I did receive the product I ordered from, but it took a bit longer than I expected, about two weeks. I only just put it in so I have yet to get a sense for how well it works. I installed the panels myself. They didn't provide instructions, so I did an online search and found a video, but I'm not sure if all customers would be able to find that. I found the pieces were quite tight to slide onto the aluminum, so I had to work at bending them a bit, which is difficult when you are sitting on the roof. The price was fine. My one question is that I'm still not sure how to buy additional pieces. I didn't receive enough pieces for the configuration I was trying to work with.
First, link the cells in series. Respect this basic rule, just like if you were soldering batteries: the positive lead is to be soldered to the negative lead of the next cell. Do this for as many cells as needed to reach a voltage of 12 or 24 volts. Do not exceed that as you would enter the area of dangerous voltages. You want to generate serious power here, not fool around and you don’t want to electrocute yourself to death (take care!). The power remains the same, after all. You just need a minimum of 12 volts to kick-start a 12V inverter for generating 110/220V AC or charge your 12V battery packs. Linking the cell in series will increase the voltage.

So you got your cells in the mail. Let’s say you received solar cells totaling 194 watts for $105+shipping (an actual example from ebay) that you carefully unpack, taking care not to break them, as they’re very thin. Now find yourself some tools like a soldering iron, solder, solder paste or flux (for removing the grease off the wires), a saw, some wooden board and protective glasses, a multimeter to measure voltage and amperage. And, of couse, a pencil and a ruler.
For a 6 kW wind turbine to produce that much energy per average year, you need an annual average wind speed of close to 5 m/s (11 mph) blowing at turbine hub height. It may not sound like much, but that is a reasonably windy place. Much of North America does not have that much wind at 100′ or below. Keep in mind, you need that much wind just to break even in energy production vs. solar. To outweigh the disadvantages of small turbines you better have more!
When thinking about the “costs” of solar, you have to also consider the savings you’ll be enjoying on your power bills. That is the point, after all, right? But those savings build up over the life of the system. And good solar installations will last 30 to 40 years. By that point, the initial sticker price will be a distant memory. What has happened in those decades since then – that’s what really matters.
Silicon based modules: aluminum frames and junction boxes are dismantled manually at the beginning of the process. The module is then crushed in a mill and the different fractions are separated - glass, plastics and metals.[31] It is possible to recover more than 80% of the incoming weight.[32] This process can be performed by flat glass recyclers since morphology and composition of a PV module is similar to those flat glasses used in the building and automotive industry. The recovered glass for example is readily accepted by the glass foam and glass insulation industry.
While there have been instances of wind turbines mounted on rooftops, it should be noted that all wind turbines vibrate and transmit the vibration to the structure on which they are mounted. This can lead to noise problems within the building. Also, the wind resource on the rooftop is in an area of increased turbulence, which can shorten the life of the turbine and reduce energy production. Additional costs related to mitigating these concerns, combined with the fact that they produce less power, make rooftop-mounted wind turbines less cost-effective than small wind systems that are installed on a tower connected to the ground. For more information, see Deployment of Wind Turbines in the Built Environment: Risks, Lessons, and Recommended Practices.
You have written hundreds of meaningful, powerful articles and even a speech or two, and can have every confidence in your ability to string together words and ideas comprehensibly at this point. You have built a movement through your words, and I congratulate you. No doubt about it, and no “hope” needed: keep playing bass and drums and you will improve and may someday consider yourself badass at those as well.

This is harder to predict, but, ideally, you want a company that will stick around for the lifetime of your installation. Since solar cells don’t have moving pieces, they tend to need very little maintenance, Larson says. Still, in the event that anything does stop working during the warranty period, you don’t want to realize that your installer isn’t around to fix it.

Solar panel kits can be used for a number of applications and are becoming more popular as the cost of solar panels has declined by more than 70% in the last decade. The most common use for solar kits are RV travelling, camping, boating and small off-grid cabins, as solar is a more attractive alternative to loud and smelly diesel generators or additional batteries.
The reliability of small wind turbines is (still) problematic. Even the good ones break much more frequently than we would like, and none will run for 20 years without the need to replace at least some part(s). Despite their apparent simplicity, a small wind turbine is nowhere near as reliable as the average car (and even cars will not run for 20 years without stuff breaking). If you are going to install a small wind turbine you should expect that it will break. The only questions are when and how often.

Mind you, in the upper Midwest, it won't produce near the power it did in the southern desert. It produces 5-6 Amps in "full sunlight" which means no clouds, no trees, no buildings. Low angle sun in the north doesn't deliver near the illumination that high angle southern desert sun does. This is why solar doesn't pay back in Detroit, Chicago or Minneapolis. Not enough sun.

In the spirit of self-reliance and ecological responsibility, wind farms and wind generators have become an increasingly logical option for energy. The wind generator kits available are a huge step in that direction. Wind generators create and provide energy by harnessing an inexhaustible, renewable resource: the wind. There is a large inventory of wind generator kits available on eBay. The basic components of a wind generator kit include the wind turbine, the blades and hub, and the tail. There are many additional choices to consider with your wind generator such as tower height and length, amount and size of blades, and power translating efficiency. Wind/solar hybrid designs, tail extensions, and other customizable options and add-ons are also available, depending on your wants and needs. You can even add decorative details with a colored or American flag emblazoned tail. Alternative energy is becoming a more popular choice for people willing to invest in both the wind generator as well as the path to non-polluting energy it is forging.
Before we discuss power centers (Inverters), lets hit on what a charge controller does. A charge controller is an electronic voltage regulator used in off-grid hybrid solar wind systems with battery banks to properly control the charge from the solar panels or wind turbine keep the voltage to the battery bank within acceptable limits. The charge controller automatically tapers, stops, or diverts power when batteries become fully charged. Without a charge controller your solar panels or wind generator would continue to send electricity to the battery bank and eventually destroy your batteries.
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The rotor-swept area (A) is important because the rotor captures the wind energy. So the larger the rotor, the more energy it can capture. The air density, ρ, changes slightly with air temperature and with elevation. The ratings for wind turbines are based on standard conditions of 59° F (15° C) at sea level. A density correction should be made for higher elevations as shown in the Air Density Change with Elevation graph. A correction for temperature is typically not needed for predicting the long-term performance of a wind turbine.
I put caulk on the backs of each cell in a column of 9, then picked the whole column up by the tabs at the top and carefully laid the column down on the substrate.  My daughter helped me keep everything lined up properly as you can see in the picture.  (This is a great project to do with your kids, by the way!)  These are homemade solar panels so the gaps between cells and the columns aren’t precise.  I don’t think it had any impact on power output so don’t think you need to be perfect.
As the section above shows, anything under 5 m/s annual average wind speed is not going to be worth-while if you want any economic benefit out of a wind turbine. Even with government incentives, you would be better off with solar for most places. Let us take this a bit further, and assume your backyard is pretty windy, a full 6 m/s (13.4 mph) annual average wind speed at 100′ height. You get a 6 kW wind turbine installed, and shell out $50,000 for that privilege. If the installer did her job properly, the turbine is spinning in nice, clean, laminar air, and it will produce around 13,000 kWh per year. You are the kind of person that wins the lottery on a regular basis, marries a beauty queen (or king), and has kids that all go to ivy-league universities; your wind turbine never breaks and you do not have to shell out a single buck for maintenance over 20 years. Now your turbine has produced around 260,000 kWh of electricity, which works out to 19.2 cents per kWh in cost. Maybe you pay more than for electricity and it is worth it, but your are likely not getting rich, and any repairs and maintenance will drive that price up in a hurry.
Many municipalities must get kick backs from the electricians they are protecting with these mazes of codes.. Most solar/wind retailes have resorces and calculators to help you calculate fusing and wire size.. Changing out things in your own home even as simple as installing a GFI outlet require a permit and a certified electrician making them outragously expensive.. In my example you could be looking at $400 and the inconvience of having people nosing around your home several times.. If that inspector finds somthing he does not like you could be looking at hundreds or thousands of dollars more in costs or having them slap a condemned sticker on your home.. I have a 4kw system planned and am praying that the County Inspector is not a pain.. Could put in an isolated system with no inspection using my amateur radio license but I want interconnect with the power company.. Local power company has a very simple application system for interconnecting and all they require is an external labeled disconnect and a status light they install on the pole at the transformer cost $50..
While I think on a personal level, distributed solar/storage is great, it just doesn’t seem to scale on a system level, since there is a lot of economies of scale in terms of cost (compare $1/W utility PV vs. $2-3/W rooftop PV), and a lot of benefits from geographical diversity, both in terms of load (your load is way more spikey than CO’s average load), and renewables (while your solar array might be doing bad during a cloudy winter day, the wind could be howling at a wind farm in Iowa or it could be sunny in New Mexico). If we really want to go 100% carbon free, we will need all the geographical diversity and economies of scale that we can. A bunch of people with rooftop solar + a battery won’t cut it sadly.
Silicon is popularly used as the solar cell's semiconductor. Yet it must do more than simply absorb photons; it has to employ an electrical field and get their current moving along. Moreover, it must be fashioned with impurities, because pure silicon will not do the job alone. Phosphorous and boron are added in a process referred to as “doping” and together these elements in their atomic interaction create the electrical field needed to move the electrons in the prescribed current they need to flow.
With the exception of the inverter, this system can be easily expanded. Any number of similar modules can be wired together in parallel, so long as the modules are of the same wattage. The 6-amp charge controller can manage up to three 32-watt modules, and extra charge controllers can be wired into the system, in parallel, as your lust for power begins to swell.
Smaller panels are available for RVs, boats, and remote off-grid power systems. 12-volt panels are available in sizes from 5-160 watts. There are also small 24-volt panels available in a few sizes up to 190 watts. These solar panels have a nominal output of either 12 volts or 24 volts, which means they are designed for off-grid use and can’t be used in grid-tied PV systems. A few manufacturers offer flexible solar panels for RV, Marine and camping which are exceptionally lightweight and easy to install.
This is a substantial piece of equipment for the entire residential solar energy system. Why? This is how you get to use the solar energy you capture in the solar panels to power your home energy needs. As stated above, the solar inverter is what converts DC power to AC power – the type of power of your home appliances, computers, and other residential power runs off of.
Without a deep cycle battery system, you will be unable to store the electricity that your solar power unit generates. This means basically that you will only have power when the sun is shining. Deep cycle batteries are specially configured to be charged and discharged frequently with a high demand system like a solar power system. The battery monitor provides a visual gauge of the electricity generated and stored by your solar power system, while the solar charge controller manages the process of charging your deep cycle batteries making sure they receive just the right amount of power but controlled and regulated throughout the day.
Another, low-cost option in areas hostile to net-metering is to start with a small solar system designed to power the base load of the house, i.e., the electrical devices that run constantly or regularly. In most houses this will be the fridge/freezer, radon mitigation fans, internet routers, etc. This type of system can have a relatively quick payback period since all or most of the power produced gets consumed on the spot.
The 800-watt inverter (with a 2,000-watt surge capacity) will run a small vacuum cleaner, a drill or a small drill press, a sander, a jigsaw or small band saw, but not a large circular saw. It will handle many toasters and coffee makers, but not all. A blender would be child's play for this inverter, a microwave an impossibility. A hair dryer on low, yes; on high, forget it.
Most locations getting a permit is a relatively easy task – it doesn’t require being a master electrician. In the vast majority of places you don’t need to be a licensed electrician in order to do electrical work on your own home. Anyone who’s done electrical work on their house (like adding an outlet, or rewiring a bathroom) will likely have gotten a permit for it (or should have.) So should be familiar with most of the permitting process. If they haven’t done any electrical work like that previously, then probably installing solar isn’t a good time for them to learn electrical skills.
Of course, there are lots of secrets you’ll find out only through practice, but the overall idea is that such a system is cheap and for 200 watts of power you’ll need solar cells worth about $200 and batteries worth about $400 to $500. If you get an inverter from ebay, or even better, buy a used UPS (handle with care), you’ll not go over $500 for the whole system. If you want to really power your entire home, you’ll need about $1,000 to become truly energy independent (as in not paying a dime to electric utilities). How does that sound?
30 Mar 2012 at 4:19pm --> . . WE have a healthy base of customers, installers, and dealers who can assist you with your home energy system. Wind and Solar is our specialty. Our Solar and Wind Home Energy Kits are installed in about 40 states of the US already. //–4-uM3s This Ohio Demo System of the RoofMill? for WindEnergy7 was […]
Important consideration: when you are selling your solar power into the grid the IRS gets involved and you will PAY taxes for the wonderful earnings of your solar array. If you are looking at ROI for your grid-tied system it might be a small thing or a large thing depending on your situation so just be aware especially if you are trying to save money over time.
deba168, I want to thank you so much for posting this article. I am not an electrical engineer so many of the articles already on Instructables on this subject or on the internet seemed incomplete to me because they did not explain many of the details that you did. Perhaps for the electrically inclinded those finer points are common knowledge and not necessary, but for me it exactly what I needed. The step-by-step approach with explanations and links to products was fantastic.
The two dominant solar technologies to pick from are photovoltaic, which uses arrays of cells to turn sunlight into electricity, and thermal, which uses sunlight to heat water or air for use inside. If your home uses a lot of energy for heating, or you live somewhere where heating fuel is expensive relative to electricity, a solar thermal investment could break even sooner, says the engineer Timothy Wilhelm, who coordinates the electrical technology program and teaches solar installation at Kankakee Community College in Illinois. But, he adds, solar thermal is rarer for homes, so it might be harder to find a qualified installer.

Although solar battery backups are outside of the scope of this article, I find it necessary to at least mention them and why they are useful. First, battery backups are good in the event of a blackout. Unfortunately, your solar panels will not power your home if the lights shut off. This is to prevent your system from frying a lineman who's repairing the grid. A battery blackout will let you keep your refrigerator running while the power's out. Second, if you are running an off-grid system, you'll need the batteries when the sun's not shining.
Installing solar panels isn’t as simple as plugging them in. Technically complicated, high-voltage wiring is involved. There’s a risk of injury while you do the wiring work itself, and a further risk later if the wiring is done badly. Hooking up strings of solar panels incorrectly can create a surge in power that can blow up an inverter—and even burn down your house. If wires are cut improperly, they could later be shorted out by rain, and pose another fire risk. There’s also the serious risk of electrocution.
It goes without saying that solar panels are essential for a solar power system. Actually, what you will probably need is known as a solar array. That is because each panel generates a small amount of electricity. The number of panels included in your solar array depends on how much power you need to generate. PV photovoltaic modules, often referred to as solar panels, convert light energy into a direct electrical current (DC). As solid-state devices, solar panels have no moving parts and are extremely reliable and durable compared to any other generator electronic technology. While solar panels have become somewhat commoditized in recent years, there are important differences in form, quality and performance that can impact both installation time and long-term system performance. Our web pages presents a selection of high-quality polycrystalline and monocrystalline solar panels with a variety of features and cheap price points to suite virtually any homeowners project.
It is pretty well known at this point that Mr. Money Mustache is enamored with solar power. Besides the obvious Sci-Fi coolness of it (Electricity, Satellites, Futuristic Robots!) and the eco-friendliness of it (energy with zero noise or pollution), in the last five years the money side of things has finally matured, so that solar power is now the cheapest way to make electricity – even before you account for the added bonus of any available subsidies and the benefits of pollution-free living.