Turbulence intensity is a major issue for small turbines because of their tower height and location around "ground clutter." Turbulence can reduce the annual energy output estimate from 15% to 25% because wind turbine power curves are typically developed based on measurements taken at sites with relatively low turbulence intensity compared to typical small wind project sites.
Solar panels, grid-tie / off-grid kits and home backup power. The do-it-yourself (DIY) craze is hardly crazy when one considers the mind-boggling cost savings resulting from this trend nationwide. In fact, many people wouldn't call it a trend at all, merely a return to the practical know-how of yesteryear when people simply had to do it themselves and took great pride in their handiwork! Yet few DIY projects are as cost-saving and investment-rich as the installation of a solar system.
Home wind turbines are electric generators that convert wind energy into clean, emission-free power. Although most large wind farms exist to power certain towns and communities, there are also smaller wind turbines for homes and homeowners. These smaller turbines can be installed on any part of your property to cover some or even all of your monthly energy needs.
Varied wind resources can exist within the same property. In addition to measuring or finding the annual wind speeds, you need to know about the prevailing directions of the wind at your site. Knowing the prevailing wind direction(s) is essential to determining the impact of obstacles and landforms when seeking the best available site location and estimating the wind resource at that location. To help with this process, small wind site assessors typically develop a wind rose, which shows the wind direction distributions of a given area. The wind rose divides a compass into sectors (usually 8 or 16) and indicates the average wind speed, average percentage of time that the wind blows from each direction, and/or the percentage of energy in the wind by sector. Wind roses can be generated based on annual average wind speeds, or by season, month, or even time of day as needed.
An off-grid inverter must supply enough power to meet the needs of all the appliances running simultaneously. Before selecting an inverter, you must know the watts your appliances will require and their amp and surge needs. Sizing an inverter for an off-grid system, which is based on instantaneous load, is very different from sizing a grid tied inverter, which is determined by the solar panel array size. In the case of an off-grid inverter, the inverter has to provide enough energy to all the AC loads, sometimes at the same time. Say you need to simultaneously power 3,000 Watts from various appliances. For an off-grid system, you’d need an inverter that could supply at least that amount. Note that the solar array size does not enter into this inverter sizing since the inverter pulls its power from the battery bank.
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There is more trouble with rated power: It only happens at a “rated wind speed”. And the trouble with that is there is no standard for rated wind speed. Since the energy in the wind increases with the cube of the wind speed, it makes a very large difference if rated power is measured at 10 m/s (22 mph), or 12 m/s (27 mph). For example, that 6 meter wind turbine from the previous section could reasonably be expected to produce 5.2 kW at 10 m/s, while it will do 9 kW at 12 m/s!
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The newness of mainstream consumer solar power poses a challenge. If you want to buy a car, for instance, there are plenty of people who’ve done it and can tell you how the process works. Putting solar panels on your roof costs as much as a car, but the cohort of experienced buyers is far, far smaller. The number of customers who have owned a solar system through its full lifecycle is even more limited.
The grid tied system – this system is connected to the national electricity grid. This type of turbine system will help reduce your consumption of utility supplied electricity. If the wind turbine doesn’t deliver enough energy then the grid makes up the difference. If the wind turbine makes too much energy then the excess can be sold to the utility. These systems make sense if your energy supplied by the utility is expensive, and their requirements for connecting your turbine to the grid are not too expensive.
As you know, your power meter measures the amount of electricity you take from the grid. It is very likely, however, that you'll need to get a special meter that is able to spin backwards - without it, you can't accurately measure the amount of energy you're giving back to the grid. In most cases, you can call your utility company and they will provide one of these meters for free. As I said before, having a power station in the middle of the grid - even a tiny one - takes a lot of load off of the system, and the utility company will gladly assist you with your solar home.
By the way, built with quality polypropylene and glass fiber, it gets by rough climate conditions out in the wild. Certainly, it is friendly for marine use as it endures saltwater corrosion. Moreover, the Windmill wind turbine features an automatic braking system to make it survive high winds. You can easily charge a 50Ah battery with the turbine that has a rotor diameter of 4-feet and weight of around 17 lbs.
Every turbine should include an owner's manual or operations manual to provide the consumer with scheduled and unscheduled maintenance information as well as other unique product information. Scheduled maintenance guidelines should be followed. If you do not have the expertise to maintain the machine, ask whether your installer provides a service and maintenance program.
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Thankfully here in Finland our grid is just under 10% coal and that is mostly combined district heat and power. Unfortunately solar doesn’t really make economical sense here. When the consumption is highest and dirtiest there is no sun to be seen for months. And in summer time, when there is plenty sun, consumption is quite low and electricity price is close to zero, even negative if it is really windy in Denmark and Sweden.
Every household will need to run its own cost-benefit analysis on this basic trade-off. Buying your own system costs more up front but pays bigger dividends; leasing lets you access cheaper electricity with little or no money down, but the benefits are more limited. If you lease, the company you contract with owns the system, and you pay them a certain rate for the electricity; when the lease is up, they might take the system away. When you own the system, it can keep working for you long after it pays off the cost of the purchase. Make sure you compare the total lifecycle cost of the lease and weigh the savings against the benefits you would get from ownership.
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We purchased a couple of these solar panels and compared them to the Windy Nation 100 Watt 12 Volt Polycrystalline Solar Panels and found that at least for the panels that we received, they produced a similar number of watts with the same sun exposure. The HQST and the Windy Nation Panels are all very good quality and well built. Probably the only difference is that the Windy Nation panels are more expensive and the MC4 cables are a little longer. We eventually purchased 18 more HQST panels and we hooked up 20 of these panels to create a 24V 2kW system on top of our garage. The 20 panels generate post-inverter about 11kWh per day during sunny days in Northern California that we can use or feed back into the grid. We never measured how much inverter loss there is though. Most of the panels face south, but we also face some of the panels west because electricity prices are much higher for us in the late afternoon. I'm happy with their performance, as it has reduced our electricity bill by about $100 per month, so the system should pay for itself in a couple of years! We would install more, but we have run out of easily accessible roof space.
While there have been instances of wind turbines mounted on rooftops, it should be noted that all wind turbines vibrate and transmit the vibration to the structure on which they are mounted. This can lead to noise problems within the building. Also, the wind resource on the rooftop is in an area of increased turbulence, which can shorten the life of the turbine and reduce energy production. Additional costs related to mitigating these concerns, combined with the fact that they produce less power, make rooftop-mounted wind turbines less cost-effective than small wind systems that are installed on a tower connected to the ground. For more information, see Deployment of Wind Turbines in the Built Environment: Risks, Lessons, and Recommended Practices.
For this last part, you’ll need to know what a net metering agreement is. Net metering is when your local utility company agrees to provide energy credits for any surplus power you produce and send back to the grid. In some cases, these credits can roll over so you accrue them long-term, and some utilities will even cut you a check for your power production credits.
For those interested in Solar in Vancouver or for condo buildings a guy in Victoria blogged all steps from system design to getting approval, install and various post completion updates stating from 2015. He posted a great PDF summary which I’ll link if allowed below. Of special note is how net metering works in ones area and teh cost to this guys much larger system was something like $3 CDN to MMM $1 USD. I would absolutely love to copy this project in my 18 unit Vancouver building. Alas being so old it will be developed sooner than later i suspect. Not sure why new buildings do not do this as mandatory if only for all the shared electricity of the building and not the actual apartments themselves.
The 1500W wind turbine is our most high powered wind turbine, made specifically for off-grid residential use in mind. Its DIY set-up instructions and with all the materials needed provided for, you will be able to set the wind turbine up in no time at all. The 1500W wind turbine is durable, low maintenance and the most powerful wind turbine in our line up of wind turbine having weighing at only 33 lbs. Coated with special high weather tolerant protection spray to protect the wind turbine from the elements such as rain. It is a completely self-sustaining stand-alone device that will continuously generates 100% clean GREEN renewable energy, without you being present or around it.
Average pricing information divides in three pricing categories: those buying small quantities (modules of all sizes in the kilowatt range annually), mid-range buyers (typically up to 10 MWp annually), and large quantity buyers (self-explanatory—and with access to the lowest prices). Over the long term there is clearly a systematic reduction in the price of cells and modules. For example, in 2012 it was estimated that the quantity cost per watt was about US$0.60, which was 250 times lower than the cost in 1970 of US$150. A 2015 study shows price/kWh dropping by 10% per year since 1980, and predicts that solar could contribute 20% of total electricity consumption by 2030, whereas the International Energy Agency predicts 16% by 2050.
I pay a less than that for generic acrylic instead of that Brandybrand(TM) stuff listed, but I also avoided the expensive epoxy by encapsulating the cells (and bonding them to the acrylic) with some EVA film. If you don’t have a lamination machine, then it is hard to do and requires a certain amount of technique; basically, partially heat and stretch it into position, before pressing it into place. Then when it is tacked together, heat it up some more to melt it into place. Being a human lamination machine is easier than cake decorating, but still hard.
Batteries – an off-grid system will need a bank of batteries to store the electricity. The turbine will produce electricity whenever it spins above the cut-in speed. So you can stockpile this energy in the batteries for when it is needed. Lead acid batteries (deep-cycle) are the most common kinds to use. They can be wired in series or parallel to make a battery bank.