Usually, the solar power systems uses 12 volt batteries, however Solar panels can deliver far more voltage than is required to charge the batteries. By, in essence, converting the excess voltage into amps, the charge voltage can be kept at an optimal level while the time required to fully charge the batteries is reduced. This allows the solar power system to operate optimally at all times.
Your situation is different than homeowners and businesses in the USA. Generally speaking, it’s not legal for someone to install their own system in the United States, since usually the permits have to be filled out by a Master Electrician and they aren’t going to do that without at least inspecting your work. Plus most incentives will only be paid to a licensed installer, so a person wouldn’t really come out ahead anyway. Given that you are concerned primarily with theft you may want to give some thought to a tracking device, instead of just making the mounts more durable.
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Most in the industry agree that 11 m/s (24.6 mph) makes for a good rated wind speed. Go above it and very soon the turbine should be hard at work to protect itself from destruction, by furling, governing, or shutting down. Those that do not will likely face a short and tortured life. If we agree on 11 m/s, an equation for a realistic rated power number is as follows:
Before choosing a wind system for your home, you should consider reducing your energy consumption by making your home or business more energy efficient. You can start by learning how electricity is used in U.S. homes. Reducing your energy consumption will significantly lower your utility bills and will reduce the size of the home-based renewable energy system you need. To achieve maximum energy efficiency, you should take a whole-building approach. View your home as an energy system with interrelated parts, all of which work synergistically to contribute to the efficiency of the system. From the insulation in your home's walls to the light bulbs in its fixtures, there are many ways to make your home more efficient.
The determining factor is shade. Any shade, whether from trees, clouds or neighbors, undermines the performance of the solar cells. To work effectively, the whole installation requires full sunlight for a minimum of 6 hours power day unshaded. The more sun the panels get, the more efficient the power generation will be. In rare instances, your roof may not be large enough or strong enough to support the technology. Usually, this results from poor repair rather than problems inherent in the roof design, though flat roofs are not ideal. Generally, you need at least 100 square feet per kW of available roof space. That means a 4 kW system would need about 400 sq. ft. of roof area.
The solution, of course, is to promote time-of-use: when there is surplus production during the day, lower the price. That will encourage day-time electric car charging, especially at workplaces. It’s crazy that the electric industry is complaining about both having too much solar during the daytime, and not being able to handle the load for charging all the future electric cars (to be fair, I think it is the auto industry that is trying to find ways to tarnish electric vehicles).

Glue all cans together using adhesive silicone resistant to high temperatures, at least up to 200°C/400°F. There are glues and silicons on the market that can easily withstand temperatures up to 300°C/570°F. Top and bottom of all pop cans are compatible and fit perfectly one onto another. Put some glue or silicone on the edge of one can and press it against the other. In this way the glue/silicone will not run away from the edge. Picture 4 shows inside view of two pop cans glued together, while series of stacked and finished cans is shown in Picture 5.
That last one refers to net-metering, the practice by which utilities reimburse rooftop solar at the same rate as they charge users for electricity. This is politically fraught territory: some states, like Nevada, have adopted policies where utilities pay less for surplus solar, which makes it harder to recoup the cost of the installation. For a handy guide to where each state stands on this, check out this solar scorecard.
Turbulence intensity—A basic measure of turbulence that is defined by the ratio of the standard deviation of the wind speed to the mean wind speed. For wind energy applications this is typically defined as a 10-minute average wind speed and standard deviation based on 1-second samples. Turbulence intensity is important for wind energy applications because it has implications for both power performance and turbine loading. Experience indicates that it can be a significant issue for small turbines because of their tower height and location around ground clutter, which puts them in the most turbulent area of the atmospheric boundary layer. The effects of turbulence on distributed wind turbines can be seen in both power production and loading
The trouble with rated power is that it does not tell you anything about energy production. Your utility company charges you for the energy you consume, not power. Likewise, for a small wind  turbine you should be interested in the energy it will produce, for your particular site, with your particular annual average wind speed. Rated power of the turbine does not do that. To find out about energy production take a look at the tables presented earlier.
Honestly, had I known my life as a supermom would involve these sophisticated equations and engineering concepts, I would have changed my Berkeley major from English to Engineering.  The way I see it, calculating my wind turbine’s kW requires the same intellect and imagination as conjuring the manifold meanings in “Nature never did betray the heart that loved her.”  C’mon, if I can do Wordsworth, surely I can do Watt times 1000.  “Wind turbine kW” will become my favorite metaphor for “dollars saved.”
When you hear the term off-grid which is synonymous with stand alone systems, you may generate a picture in your mind of rustic pioneer-type living in a cabin with few modern conveniences. In fact, this is not necessarily the case. While it is true that off-grid solar power is usually not sufficient to power an electric heating and cooling system unless you just won the Lotto or work on wall street, nearly all other appliances can be adequately powered with a properly configured off-grid system. You simply start with a daily energy budget and match the right components to meet your power demands. Check out our off-grid living page for some great information to help you plan the right system for you.
Since 2008, hundreds of thousands of solar panels have popped up across the country as an increasing number of Americans choose to power their daily lives with the sun’s energy. Thanks in part to the Solar Energy Technologies Office's investments, the cost of going solar goes down every year. You may be considering the option of adding a solar energy system to your home’s roof or finding another way to harness the sun’s energy. While there’s no one-size-fits-all solar solution, here are some resources that can help you figure out what’s best for you. Consider these questions before you go solar.
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Connecting the leads in itself to an electrical load, while closing the current path, does not allow to the electrons to flow, despite the positive and negative imbalance. It takes sunlight hitting the silicon in the solar cells to loosen up electrons. And as soon as they a freed up, they immediately start flowing through the wires to power your electrical loads. The more sunlight shines on the cells, the more electrons loosen up, the more electrical current flows and the more power it produces.
Harnessing the power of the sun is a wonderful option to help combat pollution and lower your energy costs. When considering a do-it-yourself solution, the options can be limited - and quite complicated. A short list of the pros and cons of DIY solar can be found here, but this article will explore some of the lesser-known pros and cons of a DIY solar project in 2018.
You bum….I was just getting my data together to send to you! Very nice write-up! My wife and I did a DIY ground mount array of 6.875kW for $12k pre-tax credit. We put it on the ground because our roof is 10yrs old. Using the PVWatts website our production (thus far) is beating expectations. It was relatively easy to install, with the ground supports and their concrete being the worst part. My wife is an architect so for ‘obvious’ reasons it had to be located 200′ from the house adding some more challenges. Like when I cut the water lines with the trencher. Ooops….The local power company was helpful but dubious of ability. In the end, we saved at least $20,000 off of the local installers price and gained a ton of knowledge. Using discounted cash flow analysis our return is going to beat 11% in 10 years if electricity prices stay the same. If they go up, we make more money! In the two months since we got it up an running our electricity price has gone up.
Depending on construction, photovoltaic modules can produce electricity from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence, much of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar modules, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore, another design concept is to split the light into six to eight different wavelength ranges that will produce a different color of light, and direct the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges.[10] This has been projected to be capable of raising efficiency by 50%.
You’ve heard it on the news and you’ve read the latest reports. Solar power is projected to become cheaper than coal in about 10 years. Just consider the significant drops in the cost of going solar – since 2009, solar prices have dropped 62%! What was once a far-reaching solution to lowering your home energy bill has now become a reality in the life of many homeowners. In fact, DIY residential solar kits are appearing on the shelves of big box stores. As a homeowner, you’re ready to get in on the action! And with a DIY kit, how hard could it be to start saving money on your monthly electric bill? In this article, we’ll cover what you’ll do to install a home solar energy system and the pros and cons of the DIY method versus hiring the professionals.
Micro-inverted solar panels are wired in parallel, which produces more output than normal panels which are wired in series with the output of the series determined by the lowest performing panel (this is known as the "Christmas light effect"). Micro-inverters work independently so each panel contributes its maximum possible output given the available sunlight.[15]
What size of a solar panel system is best suited for your electricity usage? Does your roof have sufficient space at the correct angle? Where should panels be positioned, and what is the optimal tilt for the panels? What solar technology is most appropriate for you, based on your climate and other unique needs? Can your roof bear the load of solar panels? These technical questions (and many more!) can easily be answered by a solar installer. A good installer will have a long track record, and experience with all types of roofs and situations.
Easy to set up. Easy to use. Great for educational purposes. Can't be used without an household 120VAC electrical outlet available. This is a "grid-tied" solar kit, not for standalone applications. 230W is the "maximum" output power on a bright sunny day, but after conversion efficiency losses, this is only minimal output power, which won't make a big difference in saving electricity, not to mention it can only be used in the daytime. A bit pricey, but at only $2.69/watt not too shabby for a "starter kit" in solar energy.
My electric company has a “green rate” where they sell you 100% solar energy for a premium. The interesting thing is you also get a discount that removes most of the premium. For myself it’s made a very small difference in my electric bill and I get to feel good knowing I’m using solar energy without owning it. They don’t actually advertise this plan at all so you might have to slueth through their website to find it.

An indemnity is an agreement between two parties in which one agrees to secure the other against loss or damage arising from some act or some assumed responsibility. In the context of customer-owned generating facilities, utilities often want customers to indemnify them for any potential liability arising from the operation of the customer's generating facility. Although the basic principle is sound—utilities should not be held responsible for property damage or personal injury attributable to someone else—indemnity provisions should not favor the utility but should be fair to both parties. Look for language that says, "each party shall indemnify the other . . ." rather than "the customer shall indemnify the utility . . ."


If you prefer to buy your solar energy system, solar loans can lower the up-front costs of the system. In most cases, monthly loan payments are smaller than a typical energy bill, which will help you save money from the start. Solar loans function the same way as home improvement loans, and some jurisdictions will offer subsidized solar energy loans with below-market interest rates, making solar even more affordable. New homeowners can add solar as part of their mortgage with loans available through the Federal Housing Administration and Fannie Mae, which allow borrowers to include financing for home improvements in the home’s purchase price. Buying a solar energy system makes you eligible for the Solar Investment Tax Credit, or ITC, which is a 30 percent federal tax credit on your system that is available through 2022. Learn more about the ITC.

Seeing the usual gushing over "solar" energy, a contrarian point of view is needed. "Solar" energy is, obviously, nothing but battery power. I'll stick to the grid any day rather than see a countryside littered with millions of dead batteries. Let the energy companies do what they do best. Of course, it's fun to mess with the technology but, as a practical matter of sunlight availability especially in certain parts of the country, you're going to go to the grid someday for some period of time...and it ain't gonna be cheap. The only really viable application is where there is no grid (unless we're talking about the poles!)
Permitting—The process of obtaining legal permission to build a project, potentially from a number of government agencies, but primarily from the local building department (i.e., the city, county, or state). During this process, a set of project plans is submitted for review to assure that the project meets local requirements for safety, sound, aesthetics, setbacks, engineering, and completeness. The permitting agency typically inspects the project at various milestones for adherence to the plans and building safety standards.
Our DIY system is also Solaredge and has been in service for about one year now. With two electric clown cars, it really makes sense for us. By going DIY we were able to install the same size system (7.5kw) that we were quoted over $30k for by a full service solar company. Our returns (as you described well) are more than monetary, but the payback time will be around 63 months.

Small wind turbines can be divided into two groups: horizontal axis and vertical axis. The most commonly used turbine in today's market is the horizontal-axis wind turbine. These turbines typically have two or three blades that are usually made of a composite material such as fiberglass. Vertical-axis wind turbines consist of two types: Savonius and Darrieus. A Savonius turbine can be recognized by its "S" shaped design when viewed from above. Darrieus turbines look like an eggbeater and have vertical blades that rotate into and out of the wind.[13]


Wiring systems are specified clearly. For instance, the red one is for all positive joints, black wire takes care of the battery negative and so on. Now, here’s a list of what you need to purchase separately- connector kit or electric wires, a pole or tower and batteries (available at Amazon as well as your nearest store). Considering its highs and lows, the master combination of this solar and wind at such a great price is highly recommended.
Another important part of a solar installation is meeting all of the necessary regulations. A professional installer can help you navigate the complicated details of ensuring that your equipment and install complies with all local, state, and national building and safety standards. You may need to get approval from a local electrical inspector, and your installer will also make sure you’re meeting all applicable electrical codes. You may need approvals from city planning departments. Your installer will also help you work with your insurance company to meet any special requirements they may have. Your power company will also have specific requirements, and working with a solar installer will help you get everything set up correctly. Although it’s not a regulation, you’ll also want to follow all of the requirements that your solar panel manufacturer has laid out in their warranty, so that if you ever need to replace a panel you know that you’ve met all of their guidelines for installation.

Battery bank sizing is the part of the hybrid solar wind system that has a higher probability of causing you problems that other parts of your system. Use the battery sizing worksheet to help you through this critical stage. Factors such as your budget may tempt you to look to cheaper battery alternatives, but a quality battery will pay off over the years. We recommend you choose a 2V or 6V battery and connect them in series so that the total equals the system voltage you initially selected.

A word of warning to anyone investing in solar: pay the extra money up front to get ‘critter guard’ installed around the base of the panels. Critter guard is a simple metal mesh that goes around the panel perimeter between the panels and the roof. If you fail to invest in critter guard, you may suffer the same fate as I did, namely that squirrels will squeeze into the gap under the panels and build nests there. This is problematic because squirrels love to chew on things, and will particularly enjoy stripping the wires between the panels and the inverter. I just got this problem fixed late last month; all told, I lost a few months of production on my panels (albeit in the Toronto winter), plus the additional costs to replace the wire, labour, etc. The cost of critter guard is negligible next to the cost of the rest of the setup, but it’s a worthwhile investment. Learn from my mistake!
Great post, thank you. I have been on the fence on this one for the same reasons. I will get it done this year, though the ridiculous tariffs really chap my hide. I haven’t found a good green clothes drying strategy for Western Washington, so this will help cover electric dryer costs. Your post did not discuss the ‘harm’ identified by some utilities in having ‘too much’ daytime production. My assumption is that the grid tying incentives will phase out as more homes adopt solar and that a shift to a battery system may be required. At any rate, this is good stuff!
If you’re hunting for a tiptop, ergonomic wind turbine that won’t sting your wallet, we recommend Mophorn 400W Wind Turbine. Though it comes with a nominal price-tag compared with our most expensive model, its multifaceted use will make your jaw drop. Locate it anywhere you please. Be it your resident, factory or office zone, you’ll be satisfied witnessing its unparalleled service everywhere.
As suppliers of inverters for turbines good, bad, and just plain ugly, we have pretty well seen it all when it comes to turbine failure. We can tell you unequivocally that you get what you pay for. Depending on your sense of adventure that can be good or bad; if you plan to go cheap, plan on (you) being the manufacturer’s R&D department and test center. Being a really good do-it-yourselfer with an understanding of wind turbines, alternators, and all things electric will come in very handy too. Just in case you do not believe us, you can read about it in this Green Power Talk thread. There are more threads with similar content on the forum, just browse around a little.
I installed a DIY system last year and my biggest problem in Iowa was, it would snow, then get really cold. The snow would then basically freeze in place until it was well above freezing for a few days or even a week. I went out a couple times after it was above freezing with the hose and would spray them to help melt the snow. It also didn’t help that the bottom of my panels isn’t the bottom of the roof, so the snow will start sliding off the panels, then get caught by the snow stuck on the roof instead of falling to the ground. I’m not too worried about it this year though, because I’ve banked an almost 2Mw credit, from my little 3.8 kw system.
20 Feb 2015 at 7:52pm --> . . //www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7h-fkS_Khs http://WINDENERGY7.com – Wind Turbines are our specialty, we invented the Wind Turbine Kit. wind turbines are the most productive way to power your home. If you are in a wind zone 2 or above we recommend a hybrid wind/solar wind turbine system for your home. Wind turbines are wind turbines used for […]
I disagree, I have saw evidence the power companies always find a way to steal back whatever money you would of saved. There is a return on your own system if you do it right. There are solar panels that have 25 to 30 year warranty, and they should still produce power even after that. If you use Edison type batteries they will last decades, and when they go bad you can just refresh them. Once you have them paid for you no longer are paying for power anymore, and when everyone's power goes out, yours will still work.
There are in fact people that collect the original Edison batteries, and believe it or not some of them still work even today. The problem is people take the cheap battery way out and those batteries don't last. Buy good batteries and cry once. There is a company that offers the Edison type batteries for sale brand new, and that is the route I would suggest going. Buy good solar panels and Edison type batteries, and cry once. The only thing you will probably have to replace is he battery acid and maybe your inverter somewhere down the line.
For simple installations such as solar garden lighting or heating your swimming pool with the power of the sun, there are viable, effective, and affordable DIY options on the market. However, with larger projects, such as whole-house solar, the process requires quite a bit of knowledge of electrical systems. Here are a few things to consider before going forward with your DIY solar project. 
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