Solar PV cell technology converts radiation from the sun into electricity. The technology has been around for decades, and is pretty straightforward. How It Works is specially-designed solar cells, containing a semi-conducting material such as silicon, are located on the roof or ground of your home or cabin. When sunlight hits the cells, it excites the electrons within the silicon, creating an electric field across the cell's sheet layers and causing a flow of electricity.

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Perform a local wind survey. This is an essential step, and will show whether a turbine is a feasible prospect or not. You can do this yourself using a wind meter. You would need to measure the wind at the prospective installation site on a daily basis for a long period of time (+1 year) to get worthwhile data. The other option is to use public information collected by meteorological agencies.
Perform a local wind survey. This is an essential step, and will show whether a turbine is a feasible prospect or not. You can do this yourself using a wind meter. You would need to measure the wind at the prospective installation site on a daily basis for a long period of time (+1 year) to get worthwhile data. The other option is to use public information collected by meteorological agencies.
GoGreenSolar: A solar provider since 2006, GoGreenSolar offers products, design services, and installations. The site offers a wide selection of solar panel kits and products. They claim to offer a robust complement of installation and troubleshooting services but I’m not sure how much service this gives you in terms of design. They offer some very cheap solar kits using brands that I have never heard of but if I was going to consider buying a kit from them I would decide what brand of solar panels and inverter I wanted before I spoke to them. I would not buy their cheapest kits as these contain brands I don’t trust.
turbine installed and running - sustained a storm last night with steady winds before the storm of up to 25 mph, then the storm hit and gusts in excess of 40 mph - the wind turbine sustained no damage and is still running this morning. My sister's house lost power for 5 hours, however, the turbine is set up to run the ice box, the ice box never lost power, everything is still... [green backup power]
How accurate are these numbers? This is the energy production a good horizontal-axis wind turbine can reach, if installed at the perfect site and height. These are the upper limit though, if your turbine produces anywhere near the number predicted by this table you should be doing your happy-dance! Most small wind turbine installations underperform significantly, in fact, the average seems to be about half of the predicted energy production (and many do not even reach that). There can be many reasons for the performance shortfall; poor site selection,  with more turbulent air than expected often has much to do with it. The reports in the ‘real world’ section following below illustrate this point. Many small wind turbines do not reach 30% overall efficiency, some are close to 0% (this is no joke!), so these numbers have only one direction to go. For off-grid battery charging wind turbines you should deduct 20 – 30% of the predicted numbers, due to the lower efficiency of a turbine tied to batteries, and the losses involved in charging batteries.
The 1500W wind turbine is our most high powered wind turbine, made specifically for off-grid residential use in mind. Its DIY set-up instructions and with all the materials needed provided for, you will be able to set the wind turbine up in no time at all. The 1500W wind turbine is durable, low maintenance and the most powerful wind turbine in our line up of wind turbine having weighing at only 33 lbs. Coated with special high weather tolerant protection spray to protect the wind turbine from the elements such as rain. It is a completely self-sustaining stand-alone device that will continuously generates 100% clean GREEN renewable energy, without you being present or around it.
With the increasing levels of rooftop photovoltaic systems, the energy flow becomes 2-way. When there is more local generation than consumption, electricity is exported to the grid. However, electricity network traditionally is not designed to deal with the 2- way energy transfer. Therefore, some technical issues may occur. For example in Queensland Australia, there have been more than 30% of households with rooftop PV by the end of 2017. The famous Californian 2020 duck curve appears very often for a lot of communities from 2015 onwards. An over-voltage issue may come out as the electricity flows from these PV households back to the network.[58] There are solutions to manage the over voltage issue, such as regulating PV inverter power factor, new voltage and energy control equipment at electricity distributor level, re-conducting the electricity wires, demand side management, etc. There are often limitations and costs related to these solutions.
A solar charge controller is a device which is placed between a solar panel and a battery. It regulates the voltage and current coming from your solar panels. It is used to maintain the proper charging voltage on the batteries. As the input voltage from the solar panel rises, the charge controller regulates the charge to the batteries preventing any over charging.
I would recommend micro-inverters on each panel if shading is an issue. That way only the panel with shade will suffer from power degradation as opposed to the entire array suffering when using a single inverter. They also give you ability to monitor each panel on-line for performance/issues etc. Makes troubleshooting a breeze. Also when factoring in future performance don’t forget to include panel power degradation. After roughly 20 years you should still be seeing at least 80% output from the panels themselves though, so not a huge issue.
Solar PV cell technology converts radiation from the sun into electricity. The technology has been around for decades, and is pretty straightforward. How It Works is specially-designed solar cells, containing a semi-conducting material such as silicon, are located on the roof or ground of your home or cabin. When sunlight hits the cells, it excites the electrons within the silicon, creating an electric field across the cell's sheet layers and causing a flow of electricity.
Hybrid Solar Wind; Combining Wind Turbines with Solar Panels - Installing solar panels to generate electricity an ideal way to create power using the sun's energy. However, once the sun sets you're left drawing power from a battery bank. By using a combination of a small wind turbine and solar panels (Hybrid Solar Wind), it should be possible to generate sufficient electricity to power your home or cabin day and night. When the sun goes down, your solar panels lose their effectiveness, but your wind turbine keeps turning even on those overcast days.

Solar panel kits can be used for a number of applications and are becoming more popular as the cost of solar panels has declined by more than 70% in the last decade. The most common use for solar kits are RV travelling, camping, boating and small off-grid cabins, as solar is a more attractive alternative to loud and smelly diesel generators or additional batteries.
The cost has dropped significantly in the last several years, making it such that, with tax incentives or rebates, a grid-tie solar system will pay for itself in just a few years. Essentially, for the price of a few years electricity, you get 25 to 35 years of electricity. In fact, solar systems will likely keep on producing electricity at a lower rate for even decades after that.

Creating a solar panel out of broken re-used solar cell pieces. I ordered a pack of these from http://siliconsolar.com (3$ for a bagful of them - you can order here). In addition, you will need some conductive copper mesh (available at most art stores), glue gun + sticks, a multimeter and a conductive pen (or any sort of conductive brush-on - I got my conductive silver pen here). In this tutorial I will try to explain the best technique I found to connect these broken cells, in order to create your own CHEAP solar panel.
The first step to planning your system is to evaluate rebate options and obtain permits. Your local power utility has rules you must follow when you hook the finished system to the grid, and building codes may also apply. In addition to federal incentives, states (and even some cities) offer rebates to help with the cost of the system. Understanding the local rules before you start will save you frustration later.
Step 5 is really confusing. Needs more detail. It looks like you took tabbing wire and soldered it in one long strip across the negative face of the bits. Then placed the whole string of bits on a large piece of copper mesh. So that only accounts for the positive to pos. and neg. to neg. Is there some other wire that goes over and under the bits? Could you please add pictures of attaching the where the positive and neg. parts are also?

Non-silicon based modules: they require specific recycling technologies such as the use of chemical baths in order to separate the different semiconductor materials.[33] For cadmium telluride modules, the recycling process begins by crushing the module and subsequently separating the different fractions. This recycling process is designed to recover up to 90% of the glass and 95% of the semiconductor materials contained.[34] Some commercial-scale recycling facilities have been created in recent years by private companies.[35] For aluminium flat plate reflector: the trendiness of the reflectors has been brought up by fabricating them using a thin layer (around 0.016 mm to 0.024 mm) of Aluminum coating present inside the non-recycled plastic food packages.[36]


We decided to go with a grid-tied system, which is much more cost effective than an off-grid system. One advantage is that you don’t have to buy batteries, which are expensive and have to be replaced from time to time. You can also choose to install a smaller, less expensive system that generates just a portion of your electricity. On the downside, grid-tied systems provide no electricity when the power grid is down.


Are you in the US? You can install solar panels and feed them into the grid if so. By law the power companies have to buy any electricity you produce. In some states it's much easier to implement than others though, check with local solar companies. You always use off the grid, but whatever you produce is fed into the grid during daytime. That offsets your electric bill. In most states the electric company just gives you a credit for whatever you produce, not a check in the mail.
Crystalline modules are the big blue panels that usually come to mind when you think about solar power. They're very efficient and very durable. A 40 year lifespan is more than you can ask of many home improvement projects, and gives you more than enough time to make your money back in savings. A drawback of crystalline is installation. These cells require a somewhat elaborate racking system. We'll cover racking on the next page.

I ran a length of metal conduit up from the inverter and just beyond the roof boot, then transitioned to a downward-facing connector to some flexible conduit, just to keep the wires covered until they get under the panels. All three conductors including the ground are running through this tube. If doing it again, I’d suggest using a different conduit box for that transition. Also, you can switch from a bare ground wire to a stranded, insulated ground at that point – much easier to pull through!
Most small wind turbines do not perform quite as well as their manufacturers want you to believe. That should come as no surprise at this point. What may be surprising is that even the turbines of the more honourable manufacturers that are honest about performance fall short, more often than not. The likely cause is turbulence and improper site selection.

Jump up ^ da Silva, Wilson (17 May 2016). "Milestone in solar cell efficiency achieved". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 9 September 2018. A new solar cell configuration developed by engineers at the University of New South Wales has pushed sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiency to 34.5% -- establishing a new world record for unfocused sunlight and nudging closer to the theoretical limits for such a device.


The bigger isn’t always better mantra is one of the main reasons we strongly encourage homeowners to consider all of their solar options, not just the brands large enough to pay for the most advertising. A recent report by the U.S. government found that large installers are $2,000 to $5,000 more expensive than small solar companies. If you have offers from some of the big installers in solar, make sure you compare those bids with quotes from local installers to ensure you don’t overpay for solar.
So get ready to spend many hours and many months reading manuals, calling help lines, watching Youtube videos over and over to be sure you know which wire is which, reading blogs, talking to friends or family who know more than you about this, sitting on hold or standing in line waiting to get your permitting questions answered, figuring out what tools you need… shall we go on?

The a/c uses a LOT of power. We inherited an old one, and it’s expensive to replace. We haven’t replaced it yet because we only turn it on about 5 days a year when it gets over 98-degrees. To keep the house cool, I close the east-facing curtains/blinds in the morning, open them later in the day, and then close the west-facing curtains/blinds in the late afternoon. Because we’re in California, the temperature gets much cooler at night. So I open the windows at night to cool the house down, and then close them in the morning to keep the heat out. This works like a charm for the 80 to 90-degree days.
Wiring systems are specified clearly. For instance, the red one is for all positive joints, black wire takes care of the battery negative and so on. Now, here’s a list of what you need to purchase separately- connector kit or electric wires, a pole or tower and batteries (available at Amazon as well as your nearest store). Considering its highs and lows, the master combination of this solar and wind at such a great price is highly recommended.
Net metering / net billing—For electric customers who generate their own electricity, net metering allows for the flow of electricity both to and from the customer. When a customer's generation exceeds the customer's use, electricity from the customer flows back to the grid, offsetting electricity consumed by the customer at a different time during the same billing cycle. In effect, the customer uses excess generation to offset electricity that the customer otherwise would have to purchase at the utility's full retail rate. Net metering is required by law in most U.S. states, but state policies vary widely. See also behind-the-meter.*

Local airport or weather stations can offer local wind data, but these data may be less reliable than actual site data. If airport data (typically recorded at 30 ft or 10 m above ground) or weather station data (typically recorded at 5 to 20 ft above ground) are used, inquire not only about the site's current equipment and location but also if it is historically consistent with the data collection equipment and siting. Equipment at these sites is not primarily intended for wind resource assessment, so it may not be positioned at an appropriate height or in a location free of obstructions. Unfortunately, airport and weather stations are usually far from the site of interest, with considerably different orography, tree cover, and monitoring height, making these data of questionable usefulness. Given the expertise required to effectively establish and correlate wind resource data, the data provided by airport and weather stations may only provide a rough screening assessment.[27]

Flashing 6 Times: High temperature protection; Flashing 7 Times: PWM driving undervoltage/overvoltage; Flashing 8 Times: Internal voltage reference undervoltage/overvoltage; Flashing 9 Times: Sensor bias current error; Flashing 10 Times: Hardware zero passage detection failure. Noted that the above operations can only be performed with the power grid connected.


First, you’ll need some wood to attach the solar cells to called the substrate.  You can use whatever you have laying around like cheap fiberboard.  Make a 3×6 inch template with a piece of paper and draw out where you cells will lay on the substrate.  After you have things drawn out the way your want, cut the substrate with a little room around the edges.
The ability of an off-grid inverter to surge to a higher level than its rated continuous output for a short duration to turn over the locked rotor of large loads like well pumps is critical. The inverter specifications that should be looked at are the Maximum Output Amps and the AC overload capability. If there are large loads a good number to look for is a five second surge capability of at least 1 ½ times the rated output of the inverter. If you have a deep well pump, the minimum requirement may be 3X the continuous run amps.
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The key to making it all work cost effectively is a really cost-effective system to bolt together over the existing parking spaces. If you can minimize the engineering, steel, concrete and building permit aspects, then things start looking much better. (The same argument applies to choosing small, lightweight bike infrastructure over the massive stuff we need to build to support cars!)
Does anyone know about a way to create a little “solar garden” that could supplement our electricity, but without installing some of the permanent infrastructure needed on a house or garage? Anything that we could put out on a deck or hang out a window? I hope that isn’t too simplistic of a description, but I figured if anyone had good ideas, it would be you guys.
Of course, this doesn’t take into account the fact that whoever built a power plant is now selling less kWh when the sun is shining, but that is the risk of that investment. The risk of installing rooftop solar is that the industry prevails over homeowner interests (some would say rights) and curtails your PV output instead of the power plant output.
Wind is created by the unequal heating of the Earth's surface by the sun. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical power that runs a generator to produce clean electricity. Today's turbines are versatile modular sources of electricity.[3] Their blades are aerodynamically designed to capture the maximum energy from the wind.[4] The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft connected to a generator or the generator's rotor, which makes electricity.
As I crunch numbers, I keep my fingers crossed my (still imaginary) wind turbine’s kW will total at least 500.  I break even at 500.  You see, with aggressive conservation—especially with turning down the wintertime heating to the threshold of hypothermia and turning up the summertime margin of “cool” to the brink of heat exhaustion—we have cut our electric bill by nearly 50%.  Now, if only we could give-up food that requires refrigeration…  Last month we used 500 kilowatts of electricity.  I need to determine whether my (could-become-real) wind turbine’s kW can measure-up against that 500kw standard.
MMM roasted the guy who criticized the friends-helped-me-do-this comment, but I think this deserves it more. Vorlic seems to be making passive-complainy-pants excuses for putting off some project (in this case solar panel evaluation/installation). The information you seek is out there right now, you can go get it yourself and do the math now, no need to wait 2 years.

These machines range micro turbines with a capacity of 50 kilowatts to large turbines with capacities in megawatts. Naturally, the price will go up as the turbine capacity increases. Another classification is according to the turbine environment. There are turbines for low wind areas that have a large rotor, and there are turbines for high wind areas with small rotors. Low wind turbines cost more than high wind units since they have to be a lot more efficient because of the absence of high wind speeds helping increase electricity generation.
I live in a city in central NY and would love to install a small system just for our pool. We have a garage adjacent to the pool which has a southern facing roof and it seems like a perfect scenario for a small scale solar do-it-yourself install. Any suggestions or words of wisdom would be really great. we are just starting the investigation process.
The best way to do a green energy project for the home is to get a kit of perfectly matched components engineered to work as planned. First options in choosing your kit are, wind only, or wind AND solar. Having a hybrid wind AND solar system is really going to make it a more consistant green energy system. We can't all afford a giant windmill or solar system, these WindEnergy7 kits are affordable. Below is a graph showing the weather cycles of wind/solar and why wind/solar hybrid is so much better than solar only, or wind only systems. .... [wind turbine guide]
It was quite a trip, for much more than the acquisition of solar panels and advice. Durango is a stunning little town, and it turned out that John lives in a community of equally impressive siblings and friends – for example his brother Charles who DIY-renovated a 50,000 square foot school over a 20-year period, which has now become the jewel of Durango’s downtown.

Batteries – an off-grid system will need a bank of batteries to store the electricity. The turbine will produce electricity whenever it spins above the cut-in speed. So you can stockpile this energy in the batteries for when it is needed. Lead acid batteries (deep-cycle) are the most common kinds to use. They can be wired in series or parallel to make a battery bank.
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