If you answered no to any of the above questions, you should probably hire a system integrator or installer. Contact the manufacturer for help or call your state energy office and local utility for a list of local system installers. A credible installer may be able to provide many services such as permitting, obtaining interconnection approval, etc. Find out if the installer is a licensed electrician. Ask for references and check them. You may also want to check with the Better Business Bureau.
The second technology is concentrating solar power, or CSP. It is used primarily in very large power plants and is not appropriate for residential use. This technology uses mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto receivers that collect solar energy and convert it to heat, which can then be used to produce electricity. Learn more about how CSP works.
The largest challenge for photovoltaic technology is said to be the purchase price per watt of electricity produced, new materials and manufacturing techniques continue to improve the price to power performance. The problem resides in the enormous activation energy that must be overcome for a photon to excite an electron for harvesting purposes. Advancements in photovoltaic technologies have brought about the process of "doping" the silicon substrate to lower the activation energy thereby making the panel more efficient in converting photons to retrievable electrons.[25]
A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood: Encouraging Solar Development through Community Association Policies and Processes – This guide, written for association boards of directors and architectural review committees, discusses the advantages of solar energy and examines the elements of state solar rights provisions designed to protect homeowner access to these benefits. It then presents a number of recommendations associations can use to help bring solar to their communities.

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The majority of solar equipment is produced in China, with only 14 American manufacturers producing solar cell modules, according to a study published by the Brookings Institute in February of this year. However, as the price of solar equipment has been dropping at a rapid rate, the offset of the passed-along trade tax in the form of increased cost to the consumer is predicted to level out by the end of the year. By 2016, the number of solar installations had increased in the United States by 14 times what it was just six years prior, according to the study, lowering the cost of individual solar panels significantly, and that pattern continues through the current time.
I think there’s some animosity between people who mistakenly think that power companies are against solar panels on homes. What’s often overlooked though is that power companies don’t just charge you for power. They are also charging you for all of the infrastructure required to deliver that power to you. So, if your normal power bill is $100 and through use of solar panels and net metering, you drive that cost down to zero, the power company isn’t recovering any of the costs associated with your home being tied to the grid.
Whether or not your wind turbine is connected to the utility grid, the installation and operation of the wind turbine is probably subject to the electrical codes that your local city or county government, or in some instances your state government, has in place. The government's principal concern is the safety of the facility, so these code requirements emphasize proper wiring and installation and the use of components that have been certified for fire and electrical safety by approved testing laboratories, such as Underwriters Laboratories. Most local electrical codes requirements are based on the National Electrical Code (NEC), which is published by the National Fire Protection Association. As of 2011, the latest version of the NEC began including sections specific to the installation of small wind energy facilities.[37] The NEC is available for purchase online at the National Fire Protection Association website[38] and can also be found at most local libraries.
Before you begin, you'll need to make sure that what you're doing is legal. Call your local government and find out what kind of building permit you need - often, for renewable energy, they will waive the permit fee. Also be sure to contact an electrician. Even if you are installing the entire system yourself, you'll need to have it inspected, just to be safe. An electrician can help with problems or opportunities you may have missed. Be sure to read DSIRE carefully - It has some information on state and local regulations.
Wiring systems are specified clearly. For instance, the red one is for all positive joints, black wire takes care of the battery negative and so on. Now, here’s a list of what you need to purchase separately- connector kit or electric wires, a pole or tower and batteries (available at Amazon as well as your nearest store). Considering its highs and lows, the master combination of this solar and wind at such a great price is highly recommended.
After calculating the battery capacity and solar panel rating you have to wire them. In many cases the calculated solar panel size or battery is not readily available in the form of a single unit in the market. So you have to add a small solar panel or batteries to match your system requirement. To match the required voltage and current rating we have to use series and parallel connections.
Installing solar panels isn’t as simple as plugging them in. Technically complicated, high-voltage wiring is involved. There’s a risk of injury while you do the wiring work itself, and a further risk later if the wiring is done badly. Hooking up strings of solar panels incorrectly can create a surge in power that can blow up an inverter—and even burn down your house. If wires are cut improperly, they could later be shorted out by rain, and pose another fire risk. There’s also the serious risk of electrocution.

We are also seeing our local utility stigmatize distributed generation (their industry term for homeowner roof-top panels). A utility is a way for investors to park their money (build a power plant) and get guaranteed returns (protected by rate increases, where the PUCs are mostly regulatory capture). So they don’t like it when homeowners can produce their own power and zero out their electric bill. Most of them are building their own solar farms now, because it is cheaper than fossil fuels for daytime production, and because they still want to sell you power, not have you make it yourself. But if you think about it, it’s better to have 100,000 panels on 5000 roofs spread across the city than in a single location that can be shaded all at once by a single cloud–the power generation will be smoother.

Hybrid wind energy systems can provide reliable off-grid power for homes, farms, or even entire communities (a co-housing project, for example) that are far from the nearest utility lines. According to many renewable energy experts, a "hybrid" system that combines wind and photovoltaic (PV) technologies offers several advantages over either single system. In much of the United States, wind speeds are low in the summer when the sun shines brightest and longest. The wind is strong in the winter when less sunlight is available and may be stronger at night compared to the day. Because the peak operating times for wind and PV occur at different times of the day and year, hybrid systems are more likely to produce power when you need it. (For more information on solar electric or PV systems, see Using Solar Electricity at Home).


Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity. A photovoltaic (PV) module is a packaged, connected assembly of typically 6x10 photovoltaic solar cells. Photovoltaic modules constitute the photovoltaic array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications.
What is a small wind turbine? Anything under, say, 10 meters rotor diameter (30 feet) is well within the “small wind” category. That works out to wind turbines with a rated power up to around 20 kW (at 11 m/s, or 25 mph). For larger wind turbines the manufacturers are usually a little more honest, and more money is available to do a good site analysis. The information in this article is generic: The same applies to all the other brands and models, be they of the HAWT (Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine) or VAWT (Vertical Axis Wind Turbine) persuasion.
Our panels produce the most electricity between 9 AM and 5 PM (Spring/Summer) when we are not home. Durham/Raleigh area of NC has net metering…..So any surplus is delivered to the grid. In the evening when the solar system is producing the least or not at all, we are using electricity from the grid. At the end of the month, if we use more from the grid than the solar system, we are charged for that usage. If we deliver more to the grid, we carry surplus balance of kWh that carries over to the next month.
The first component we are going to wire is the Charge Controller. At the bottom of the Charge Controller there are 3 signs in my charge controller. The first one from the left is for the connection of the Solar Panel having positive (+) and negative (-) signs. The second one with plus (+) and minus (-) signs is for the Battery connection and the last one for the direct DC load connection like DC lights.
There is no silver bullet in electricity or energy demand and bill management, because customers (sites) have different specific situations, e.g. different comfort/convenience needs, different electricity tariffs, or different usage patterns. Electricity tariff may have a few elements, such as daily access and metering charge, energy charge (based on kWh, MWh) or peak demand charge (e.g. a price for the highest 30min energy consumption in a month). PV is a promising option for reducing energy charge when electricity price is reasonably high and continuously increasing, such as in Australia and Germany. However for sites with peak demand charge in place, PV may be less attractive if peak demands mostly occur in the late afternoon to early evening, for example residential communities. Overall, energy investment is largely an economical decision and it is better to make investment decisions based on systematical evaluation of options in operational improvement, energy efficiency, onsite generation and energy storage.[59][60]
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Beaufort scale—A scale of wind forces, described by name and range of velocity, and classified from force 0 to 12, with an extension to 17. The initial (1805) Francis Beaufort wind force scale of 13 classes (0 to 12) did not reference wind speed numbers but related qualitative wind conditions to effects on the sails of a frigate, then the main ship of the Royal Navy, from "just sufficient to give steerage" to "that which no canvas sails could withstand." Although the Beaufort scale has little use in site assessments, a system of tree flagging observations has been used to estimate prevailing wind directions and levels on the scale over time.
Working with all my formulae and variables for wind turbines’ kW, I inadvertently, fortunately, have begun to sort my “need-to-know” list from my “wish-I-knew” list.  For example, I understand that “kilowatt” is the standard unit of measure for generating and consuming electricity; I do not really need to understand the relationship between watts and volts—at least, not yet anyway.  I must remember, though, that most of my appliances run on twelve-volt alternating current, and I cannot connect my (still imaginary) wind turbine directly to my household power without running it, first, through an inverter or transformer, converting it from direct current to alternating current.  Working-out my (still in the catalogue) wind turbine’s “kW,” I have mastered the difference between “power” and “energy”:  Oh sure, you think the two words represent the same atomic stuff surging through the wires, but “power” tells me what my (I should buy it) wind turbine can crank out in any old split-second.  “Energy,” on the other hand, tells me what my (durable, reliable, but still imaginary) wind turbine will produce over time—that kilowatt-hour deal that means so much.  Yes, I should know my wind turbine’s kW power, but I absolutely must know my wind turbine’s kW energy…first in kilowatt hours, for the sake of comparison, and then in kilowatts per month for the sake of calculating supply and demand.
Wind shear—The difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Wind shear can be broken down into vertical and horizontal components, with horizontal wind shear seen across storm fronts and near the coast, and vertical shear seen typically near the surface (though also at higher levels in the atmosphere near upper-level jets and frontal zones aloft).
If you’re hunting for a tiptop, ergonomic wind turbine that won’t sting your wallet, we recommend Mophorn 400W Wind Turbine. Though it comes with a nominal price-tag compared with our most expensive model, its multifaceted use will make your jaw drop. Locate it anywhere you please. Be it your resident, factory or office zone, you’ll be satisfied witnessing its unparalleled service everywhere.

In 1839, the ability of some materials to create an electrical charge from light exposure was first observed by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel.[6] This observation was not replicated again until 1873, when Willoughey Smith discovered that the charge could be caused by light hitting selenium. After this discovery, William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day published "The action of light on selenium" in 1876, describing the experiment they used to replicate Smith's results.[6][7] In 1881, Charles Fritts created the first commercial solar panel, which was reported by Fritts as "continuous, constant and of considerable force not only by exposure to sunlight but also to dim, diffused daylight."[8] However, these solar panels were very inefficient, especially compared to coal-fired power plants. In 1939, Russell Ohl created the solar cell design that is used in many modern solar panels. He patented his design in 1941.[9] In 1954, this design was first used by Bell Labs to create the first commercially viable silicon solar cell.[6]
CONS: This solar thermal system does not have battery bank and is not able to accumulate thermal energy after producing it. When it’s sunny, solar collector produces heat, but it is necessary to use it instantly for space heating. If the sun does not shine, it is necessary to block the air supply to the solar collector, otherwise the room will begin to slowly cool off. This can be solved by installing shut-off valve, which should reduce unnecessary heat loss.
As I crunch numbers, I keep my fingers crossed my (still imaginary) wind turbine’s kW will total at least 500.  I break even at 500.  You see, with aggressive conservation—especially with turning down the wintertime heating to the threshold of hypothermia and turning up the summertime margin of “cool” to the brink of heat exhaustion—we have cut our electric bill by nearly 50%.  Now, if only we could give-up food that requires refrigeration…  Last month we used 500 kilowatts of electricity.  I need to determine whether my (could-become-real) wind turbine’s kW can measure-up against that 500kw standard.

Solar panel has been a well-known method of generating clean, emission free electricity. However, it produces only direct current electricity (DC), which is not what normal appliances use. Solar photovoltaic systems (solar PV systems) are often made of solar PV panels (modules) and inverter (changing DC to AC). Solar PV panels are mainly made of solar photovoltaic cells, which has no fundamental difference to the material for making computer chips. The process of producing solar PV cells (computer chips) is energy intensive and involves highly poisonous and environmental toxic chemicals. There are few solar PV manufacturing plants around the world producing PV modules with energy produced from PV. This measure greatly reduces the carbon footprint during the manufacturing process. Managing the chemicals used in the manufacturing process is subject to the factories' local laws and regulations.


Governor—A device used to limit the RPM of the rotor. Limiting RPM serves to reduce centrifugal forces acting on the wind turbine and rotor as well as limit the electrical output of the generating device. Governors can be electrical, also know as "dynamic braking," or mechanical. Mechanical governors can be "passive," using springs to pitch the blades out of their ideal orientation, or an offset rotor that pitches out of the wind, or "active" by electrically or hydraulically pitching blades out of their ideal orientation.*
Equipped with a 3-phase External Rectifier pigtail. This small black connector on the back of the unit allows you to run less costly 3-conductor wire to your battery location instead of large heavy battery cables in addition to lessening the voltage loss you get with DC power. Once at the battery location the 3-phase power is fed into the included Charge Controller and is converted to DC for connection to the battery.
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